Transformation Products of Synthetic Chemicals in the Environment

Transformation Products of Synthetic Chemicals in the Environment

Author: Alistair Boxall

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642260411

Category: Science

Page: 249

View: 634

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Following release to the environment, synthetic chemicals may be degraded by biotic and abiotic processes. The degradation of the chemical can follow a plethora of pathways and a range of other substances can be formed via thesedifferentpathways(e.g.[1]).Anumberoftermshavebeenusedforthese substances including metabolites, degradates and transformation products - in this book we use the term transformation products. While we often know a lot about the environmental properties and effects of the parent synthetic chemical, we know much less about the transformationproducts. Transformationproductscanbehave very differently fromtheparent c- pound (e.g. [2]). For example, selected transformation products are much more persistent than their associated parent compound in soils, waters and sediments andsomemaybetransported aroundthelocal, regionalandglobal environmentstoadifferentextentthantheparentcompound.Transformation products can also have very different toxicities than the parent compound (e.g. [3]) and in some cases transformation products can be orders of mag- tude more toxic than their parent compound; although this situation is rare. The environmental risks of transformation products can therefore be very different than the risks of the parent compound. Thepotentialenvironmentalimpactsoftransformationproductsarerec- nised by many regulatory assessment schemes. For example, in the EU, pes- cideproducersarenotonlyrequiredtoassessthefateandeffectsoftheparent pesticide but are also required to assess the potential adverse effects of major metabolitesandminor metabolitesthat aredeemed tobeofconcern[4]. S- ilar requirements also exist for new human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and biocides (e.g. [5]). However, for many older substances and many other substance classes (e.g. industrial chemicals), data on the environmental risks of transformationproductscan be limited or non-existent.

Transformation Products of Synthetic Chemicals in the Environment

Transformation Products of Synthetic Chemicals in the Environment

Author: Alistair Boxall

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540882725

Category: Science

Page: 257

View: 662

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When a synthetic chemical is released into the environment it may be degraded by abiotic and biotic processes. These degradation processes usually involve a cascade of reactions resulting in the formation of a number of transformation products. While we usually know a great deal about the environmental properties, fate and effects of parent synthetic chemicals, our understanding of the impacts of transformation products is much less developed. As such, this volume brings together chapters from leading researchers in the field of transformation products in the environment and describes how these products are formed, how they move through the environment, and their environmental effects. The book also presents modelling and analytical approaches for understanding the occurrence, fate and effects of transformation products in the environment. It is of interest to scientists in academia, the chemicals industry and regulators, as well as graduate students in Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology.

Polyfluorinated Chemicals and Transformation Products

Polyfluorinated Chemicals and Transformation Products

Author: Thomas P. Knepper

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642218712

Category: Science

Page: 183

View: 990

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Due to their unparalleled effectiveness and efficiency, polyfluorinated chemicals (PFC) have become essential in numerous technical applications. However, many PFCs brought to market show limited biodegradability, and their environmental persistence combined with toxic and bioaccumulative potential have become a matter of concern in some instances. This volume highlights the synthesis of PFCs, focusing on substances with improved application and environmental properties, which are a challenge for synthetic chemists. Further, modern mass spectrometric techniques for the detection and identification of biotransformation products of PFCs are described. The sorption and leaching behavior of PFC in soil is also addressed in order to predict their fate in the environment. Several contributions discuss the monitoring of PFCs in European surface, ground and drinking waters, treatment options for PFC removal from drinking water, occurrence in food, and the human biomonitoring of PFCs.

Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle

Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle

Author: Despo Fatta-Kassinos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048135097

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 507

View: 563

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The history of chemistry and pharmaceutical sciences is an impressive success story. The products of chemical and pharmaceutical industries are present eve- where in our everyday life. They help to pursue the modern way of living and they contribute to our high standard of living and safety, mobility, communication te- nologies, food, health, textiles and drinking water treatment, among many others. These products are labeled under the categories: pharmaceuticals, pesticides, det- gents, fertilizers, dyes, paints, preservatives, food additives and personal care pr- ucts, to name a few. Within these categories, groups of chemicals with similar structures can be found. However, often groups of chemicals with very different structures belong to the same category. For a long time the production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, their usage and application was connected with the heavy pollution of the environment and serious health effects. At the end of the last century, it was realised that the products of che- cal and pharmaceutical industries are presenting a new type of environmental pol- tion that may also pose a health risk to the consumer. Most chemicals are used in so-called open applications in excessive amounts e. g. for personal care, hygiene, plant protection, health and in textiles. In many cases such as scents, detergents, textile chemicals, surface disinfectants, pesticides and others it is unavoidable that these chemicals are released into the environment according to their intended use.

Polyfluorinated Chemicals and Transformation Products

Polyfluorinated Chemicals and Transformation Products

Author: Thomas P. Knepper

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642218729

Category: Science

Page: 174

View: 413

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Due to their unparalleled effectiveness and efficiency, polyfluorinated chemicals (PFC) have become essential in numerous technical applications. However, many PFCs brought to market show limited biodegradability, and their environmental persistence combined with toxic and bioaccumulative potential have become a matter of concern in some instances. This volume highlights the synthesis of PFCs, focusing on substances with improved application and environmental properties, which are a challenge for synthetic chemists. Further, modern mass spectrometric techniques for the detection and identification of biotransformation products of PFCs are described. The sorption and leaching behavior of PFC in soil is also addressed in order to predict their fate in the environment. Several contributions discuss the monitoring of PFCs in European surface, ground and drinking waters, treatment options for PFC removal from drinking water, occurrence in food, and the human biomonitoring of PFCs.

Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

Author: Dimitra A. Lambropoulou

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118339572

Category: Science

Page: 992

View: 922

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Over the last 15 years, the focus of chemical pollution hasshifted from conventional pollutants to so-called“emerging” or “new” unregulatedcontaminants. These include pharmaceuticals and personal careproducts, hormones, UV filters, perfluorinated compounds,poylybrominated flame retardants (BFRs), pesticides, plasticizers,artificial sweeteners, illicit drugs, and endocrine disruptorcompounds (EDCs). Despite the increasing number of publishedstudies covering emerging contaminants, we know almost nothingabout the effects of their transformation products and/ormetabolites. This two-volume set provides a unique collection of research ontransformation products, their occurrence, fate and risks in theenvironment. It contains 32 chapters, organised into 7 parts, eachwith a distinct focus: • General Considerations • Transformation Processes and Treatment Strategies • Analytical Strategies • Occurrence, Fate and Effects in the Environment • Global Speciality and Environmental Status • Risk Assessment, Management and Regulatory Framework • Outlook Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in theEnvironment is a valuable resource for researchers and industryprofessionals in environmental chemistry, analytical chemistry,ecotoxicology, environmental sciences, and hydrology, as well asenvironmental consultants and regulatory bodies.

Chemical Toxicity Prediction

Chemical Toxicity Prediction

Author: Mark Cronin

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781849734400

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 275

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The aim of this book is to provide the scientific background to using the formation of chemical categories, or groups, of molecules to allow for read-across i.e. the prediction of toxicity from chemical structure. It covers the scientific basis for this approach to toxicity prediction including the methods to group compounds (structural analogues and / or similarity, mechanism of action) and the tools to achieve this. The approaches to perform read-across within a chemical category are also described. Chemical Toxicity Prediction provides concise practical guidance for those wishing to apply these methods (in risk / hazard assessment) and will be illustrated with case studies. This is the first book that addresses the concept of category formation and read-across for toxicity prediction specifically. This topic has really taken off in the past few years due to concerns over dealing with the REACH legislation and also due to the availability of the OECD (Q)SAR Toolbox. Much (lengthy and complex) guidance is available on category formation e.g. from the OECD and, to a lesser extent, the European Chemicals Agency but there is no one single source of information that covers all techniques in a concise user-friendly format.

Global Risk-Based Management of Chemical Additives I

Global Risk-Based Management of Chemical Additives I

Author: Bernd Bilitewski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642248757

Category: Science

Page: 295

View: 651

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Chemical additives are used to enhance the properties of many industrial products. Since their release into the environment is a potential risk for man and nature, their fate and behavior were investigated in the framework of the European Union-funded project RISKCYCLE. The results are presented in two volumes, Global Risk-Based Management of Chemical Additives I: Production, Usage and Environmental Occurrence and Global Risk-Based Management of Chemical Additives II: Risk-Based Assessment and Management Strategies. This book is the first of the two volumes and contains two main parts. The chapters of the first part provide a thorough review of the chemical additives used in the textile, plastics, lubricants, paper, leather and electronics industries, and describe the effect of each additive on the properties of the product. In the second part international case studies on the global trade of these chemicals and their impact on human health and the environment are presented. This volume is an invaluable source of information for scientists and governmental agencies dealing with the risk assessment of chemicals on a global scale.

Chemical Structure of Pelagic Redox Interfaces

Chemical Structure of Pelagic Redox Interfaces

Author: Evgeniy V. Yakushev

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642321252

Category: Science

Page: 290

View: 940

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Over the last few decades many studies have focused on the oxygen depletion of coastal and oceanic waters. An understanding of the processes involved is fundamental to assess the effects of global and climatic changes and to support an ecosystem approach to adaptive environmental management for coastal seas and ocean basins. This timely book presents the state-of-the-art of our knowledge of the nature and chemical structure of redox interfaces in a marine water column, oxygen depletion and connected processes. The structures of the redox layers, including the distribution of certain parameters and microbiological features, are described in detail. The volume also covers studies devoted to the interannual variability of some oxygen-depleted systems, modeling and new developments in observation techniques. In addition, it identifies remaining gaps in our knowledge of the cycling of chemical elements in changing redox conditions. The chapters are based on extensive observational data, collected by the authors during sea and shore expeditions, on archive data, and on a broad range of scientific literature.

Human Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Human Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Author: Bryan W. Brooks

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461434733

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 381

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Human interaction with the environment remains one of the most pervasive facets of modern society. In a world characterized by rapid population growth, unprecedented global trade and digital communications, energy security, natural resource scarcities, climatic changes and environmental quality, emerging diseases and public health, biodiversity and habitat modifications are routinely touted by the popular press as they canvas global political agendas and scholarly endeavors.

Experiences from Ground, Coastal and Transitional Water Quality Monitoring

Experiences from Ground, Coastal and Transitional Water Quality Monitoring

Author: Antoni Munné

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319239040

Category: Science

Page: 339

View: 944

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This book details the experiences gained by the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) in a Mediterranean watershed – the Catalan River Basin District – following the launch of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Groundwater and coastal water experts present 13 chapters defining tools for water-status assessment specially adapted to Mediterranean conditions. The content of this and the companion volume Experiences from Surface Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part I) are the result of an excellent collaboration between the ACA and several Catalan universities and research centers to cope with new challenges provided by the WFD monitoring requirements. The volume serves as a useful guide for environmental managers and scientists engaged in other European as well as Non-European river basins.

Still Only One Earth

Still Only One Earth

Author: RE Hester

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781782620761

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 511

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Forty years since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm, how has the situation changed? We still have only one Earth but are we caring for and maintaining it? This book, written by leaders in the field, discusses the key environmental issues affecting the Earth today including atmospheric science, the marine environment, waste management and a specific chapter looking at changes in attitude to environmental issues. Aimed at policy makers, students, environmental scientists and thinkers, this title will be an important review bringing the reader right up to date with current opinions and attitudes.