The Value of Science in Space Exploration

The Value of Science in Space Exploration

Author: James S.J. Schwartz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190069087

Category: Philosophy

Page: 368

View: 629

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Space exploration, especially the recent push for the commercialization and militarization of space, is attracting increased attention not only from the wider public and the private sector but also from scholars in a wide range of disciplines. At this moment of uncertainty about the future direction of national spaceflight programs, The Value of Science in Space Exploration defends the idea, often overlooked, that the scientific understanding of the Solar System is both intrinsically and instrumentally valuable. Drawing on research from the physical sciences, social sciences, and the humanities, James S.J. Schwartz argues further that there is truly a compelling obligation to improve upon our scientific understanding-including our understanding of space environments-and that there exists a corresponding duty to engage in the scientific exploration of the Solar System. After outlining the underpinning epistemological debates, Schwartz tackles how this obligation affects the way we should approach some of the major questions of contemporary space science and policy: Is there a need for environmental preservation in space? Should humans try to establish settlements on the Moon, Mars, or elsewhere in the Solar System, and if so, how? In answering these questions, Schwartz parleys with recent work in science policy and social philosophy of science to characterize the instrumental value of scientific research, identifying space research as a particularly effective generator of new knowledge. Additionally, whereas planetary protection policies are currently employed to prevent biological contamination only of sites of interest in the search for extraterrestrial life, Schwartz contends that all sites of interest to space science ought to be protected. Meanwhile, both space resource exploitation, such as lunar or asteroid mining, and human space settlement would result in extensive disruption or destruction of pristine space environments. The overall ethical value of these environments in the production of new knowledge and understanding is greater than their value as commercial or real commodities, and thus confirms that the exploitation and settlement of space should be avoided until the scientific community develops an adequate understanding of these environments. At a time when it is particularly pertinent to consider the ways in which space exploration might help solve some of the world's ethical and resource-driven concerns, The Value of Science in Space Exploration is a thought-provoking and much-needed examination into the world of space.

Issues in Astronautics and Space Research: 2013 Edition

Issues in Astronautics and Space Research: 2013 Edition

Author:

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 9781490105987

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 291

View: 388

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Issues in Astronautics and Space Research / 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Spacecraft and Rockets. The editors have built Issues in Astronautics and Space Research: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Spacecraft and Rockets in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Astronautics and Space Research: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Space Studies Board Annual Report 2017

Space Studies Board Annual Report 2017

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309477628

Category: Science

Page: 128

View: 574

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The original charter of the Space Science Board was established in June 1958, three months before the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) opened its doors. The Space Science Board and its successor, the Space Studies Board (SSB), have provided expert external and independent scientific and programmatic advice to NASA on a continuous basis from NASA's inception until the present. The SSB has also provided such advice to other executive branch agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Department of Defense, as well as to Congress. Space Studies Board Annual Report 2017 covers a message from the chair of the SSB, David N. Spergel. This report also explains the origins of the Space Science Board, how the Space Studies Board functions today, the SSB's collaboration with other National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine units, assures the quality of the SSB reports, acknowledges the audience and sponsors, and expresses the necessity to enhance the outreach and improve dissemination of SSB reports. This report will be relevant to a full range of government audiences in civilian space research - including NASA, NSF, NOAA, USGS, and the Department of Energy, as well members of the SSB, policy makers, and researchers.

Space Studies Board Annual Report 2013

Space Studies Board Annual Report 2013

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309302869

Category: Science

Page: 82

View: 746

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The original charter of the Space Science Board was established in June 1958, 3 months before the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) opened its doors. The Space Science Board and its successor, the Space Studies Board (SSB), have provided expert external and independent scientific and programmatic advice to NASA on a continuous basis from NASA's inception until the present. The SSB has also provided such advice to other executive branch agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Department of Defense, as well as to Congress. Space Studies Board Annual Report 2013 covers a message from the chair of the SSB, Charles F. Kennel. This report also explains the origins of the Space Science Board, how the Space Studies Board functions today, the SSB's collaboration with other National Research Council units, assures the quality of the SSB reports, acknowledges the audience and sponsors, and expresses the necessity to enhance the outreach and improve dissemination of SSB reports. This report will be relevant to a full range of government audiences in civilian space research - including NASA, NSF, NOAA, USGS, and the Department of Energy, as well members of the SSB, policy makers, and researchers.

Space Studies Board Annual Report 2014

Space Studies Board Annual Report 2014

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309368049

Category: Science

Page: 82

View: 346

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The original charter of the Space Science Board was established in June 1958, 3 months before the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) opened its doors. The Space Science Board and its successor, the Space Studies Board (SSB), have provided expert external and independent scientific and programmatic advice to NASA on a continuous basis from NASA's inception until the present. The SSB has also provided such advice to other executive branch agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Department of Defense, as well as to Congress. Space Studies Board Annual Report 2014 covers a message from the chair of the SSB, David N. Spergel. This report also explains the origins of the Space Science Board, how the Space Studies Board functions today, the SSB's collaboration with other National Research Council units, assures the quality of the SSB reports, acknowledges the audience and sponsors, and expresses the necessity to enhance the outreach and improve dissemination of SSB reports. This report will be relevant to a full range of government audiences in civilian space research - including NASA, NSF, NOAA, USGS, and the Department of Energy, as well members of the SSB, policy makers, and researchers.

Mankind Beyond Earth

Mankind Beyond Earth

Author: Claude Piantadosi

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231162425

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 655

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Seeking to reenergize Americans' passion for the space program, the value of further exploration of the Moon, and the importance of human beings on the final frontier, Claude A. Piantadosi presents a rich history of American space exploration and its major achievements. He emphasizes the importance of reclaiming national command of our manned program and continuing our unmanned space missions, and he stresses the many adventures that still await us in the unfolding universe. Acknowledging space exploration's practical and financial obstacles, Piantadosi challenges us to revitalize American leadership in space exploration in order to reap its scientific bounty. Piantadosi explains why space exploration, a captivating story of ambition, invention, and discovery, is also increasingly difficult and why space experts always seem to disagree. He argues that the future of the space program requires merging the practicalities of exploration with the constraints of human biology. Space science deals with the unknown, and the margin (and budget) for error is small. Lethal near-vacuum conditions, deadly cosmic radiation, microgravity, vast distances, and highly scattered resources remain immense physical problems. To forge ahead, America needs to develop affordable space transportation and flexible exploration strategies based in sound science. Piantadosi closes with suggestions for accomplishing these goals, combining his healthy skepticism as a scientist with an unshakable belief in space's untapped -- and wholly worthwhile -- potential.

Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration

Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309163842

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 455

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More than four decades have passed since a human first set foot on the Moon. Great strides have been made in our understanding of what is required to support an enduring human presence in space, as evidenced by progressively more advanced orbiting human outposts, culminating in the current International Space Station (ISS). However, of the more than 500 humans who have so far ventured into space, most have gone only as far as near-Earth orbit, and none have traveled beyond the orbit of the Moon. Achieving humans' further progress into the solar system had proved far more difficult than imagined in the heady days of the Apollo missions, but the potential rewards remain substantial. During its more than 50-year history, NASA's success in human space exploration has depended on the agency's ability to effectively address a wide range of biomedical, engineering, physical science, and related obstacles--an achievement made possible by NASA's strong and productive commitments to life and physical sciences research for human space exploration, and by its use of human space exploration infrastructures for scientific discovery. The Committee for the Decadal Survey of Biological and Physical Sciences acknowledges the many achievements of NASA, which are all the more remarkable given budgetary challenges and changing directions within the agency. In the past decade, however, a consequence of those challenges has been a life and physical sciences research program that was dramatically reduced in both scale and scope, with the result that the agency is poorly positioned to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by the now fully equipped and staffed ISS laboratory, or to effectively pursue the scientific research needed to support the development of advanced human exploration capabilities. Although its review has left it deeply concerned about the current state of NASA's life and physical sciences research, the Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space is nevertheless convinced that a focused science and engineering program can achieve successes that will bring the space community, the U.S. public, and policymakers to an understanding that we are ready for the next significant phase of human space exploration. The goal of this report is to lay out steps and develop a forward-looking portfolio of research that will provide the basis for recapturing the excitement and value of human spaceflight--thereby enabling the U.S. space program to deliver on new exploration initiatives that serve the nation, excite the public, and place the United States again at the forefront of space exploration for the global good.

Science in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration

Science in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309095938

Category: Science

Page: 37

View: 721

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In January 2004, President Bush announced a new space policy directed at human and robotic exploration of space. The National Academies released a report at the same time that independently addressed many of the issues contained in the new policy. In June, the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy issued a report recommending that NASA ask the National Research Council (NRC) to reevaluate space science priorities to take advantage of the exploration vision. Congress also directed the NRC to conduct a thorough review of the science NASA is proposing to undertake within the initiative. This report provides an initial response to those requests. It presents guiding principles for selecting science missions that enhance and support the exploration program. The report also presents findings and recommendations to help guide NASA's space exploration strategic planning activity. Separate NRC reviews will be carried out of strategic roadmaps that NASA is developing to implement the policy.

The Ethics of Space Exploration

The Ethics of Space Exploration

Author: James S.J. Schwartz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319398273

Category: Philosophy

Page: 267

View: 466

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This book aims to contribute significantly to the understanding of issues of value (including the ultimate value of space-related activities) which repeatedly emerge in interdisciplinary discussions on space and society. Although a recurring feature of discussions about space in the humanities, the treatment of value questions has tended to be patchy, of uneven quality and even, on occasion, idiosyncratic rather than drawing upon a close familiarity with state-of-the-art ethical theory. One of the volume's aims is to promote a more robust and theoretically informed approach to the ethical dimension of discussions on space and society. While the contributions are written in a manner which is accessible across disciplines, the book still withstands scrutiny by those whose work is primarily on ethics. At the same time it allows academics across a range of disciplines an insight into current approaches toward how the work of ethics gets done. The issues of value raised could be used to inform debates about regulation, space law and protocols for microbial discovery as well as longer-range policy debates about funding.