The Human Exploration of Space

The Human Exploration of Space

Author: Committee on Human Exploration

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309591713

Category: Science

Page: 101

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During 1988, the National Research Council's Space Science Board reorganized itself to more effectively address NASA's advisory needs. The Board's scope was broadened: it was renamed the Space Studies Board and, among other new initiatives, the Committee on Human Exploration was created. The new committee was intended to focus on the scientific aspects of human exploration programs, rather than engineering issues. Their research led to three reports: Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of Space published in 1993, Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space published in 1994, and Science Management in the Human Exploration of Space published in 1997. These three reports are collected and reprinted in this volume in their entirety as originally published.

Into the Final Frontier

Into the Final Frontier

Author: Bernard McNamara

Publisher: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company

ISBN: STANFORD:36105110421075

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 400

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One of the greatest accomplishments of the 20th century was man's advance into space. This book traces the development of manned space flight from the late 1800's to the present time and offers speculation about man's future objectives in space. The book discusses the scientific results of manned space flight while also examining the cultural, military, and political factors that influenced these achievements. INTO THE FINAL FRONTIER is designed to work as a supplement to a main astronomy course or in a course specifically targeting the space program.

Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Odysseys

Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Odysseys

Author: Luca Codignola-Bo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783211874653

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 246

View: 546

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Humans and space When faced with the issue of space exploration, one generally has an idea of the ?elds of study and disciplines that are involved: technology, physics and chemistry, robotics, astronomy and planetary science, space biology and medicine, disciplines which are usually referred to as the ?sciences?. In recent discussions, the human element of space exploration has attracted more and more the interest of the space sciences. As a consequence, adjacent disciplines have gained in relevance in space exploration and space research, in times when human space ?ights are almost part of everyday life. These disciplines include psychology and sociology, but also history, philosophy, anthropology, cultural studies, political sciences and law. The cont- bution of knowledge in these ?elds plays an important role in achieving the next generation of space exploration, where humans will resume exploring the Moon and, eventually, Mars,and wherespacetourism isbeginningtobedeveloped. With regard to technology, one might soon be prepared for this. Much less is this the case with space exploration by humans, rather than by robots. Robotic explorations to other planets across the solar system have developed in the past 50 years, since the beginning of the ?space age? with the presence of humans in nearby space and the landing on the Moon. Space exploration is now not only focused on technological achievements,asitsdevelopmentalsohassocial,culturalandeconomicimpacts. This makes human space exploration a topic to address in a cross-disciplinary manner.

Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Author: Ulrike Landfester

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783709102800

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 333

View: 278

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Following the first comprehensive transdisciplinary dialogue on humans in outer space which resulted in "Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Odysseys", the European Science Foundation (ESF), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI) have continued and deepened this transdisciplinary dialogue, which can now be found in Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Going further than regarding humans as better-than-robot tools for exploration, it investigates the human quest for odysseys beyond Earth's atmosphere and reflects on arising issues related to Europe's role among the States conducting human exploration. It provides perspectives related to governance, management of space exploration, space settlements, the role of astronauts in the future as well as related to the encounter of extraterrestrial life.

Beyond Earth

Beyond Earth

Author: Bob Krone

Publisher: Collectors Guide Pub

ISBN: UVA:X004897861

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 341

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Providing a foundation for space planners and anyone interested in human settlement in the solar system, this book theorizes about the near future, when the heretofore significant steps of humankind—traveling to the moon and building space stations—will be dwarved by new progress. Scholars and scientists raise and answer such questions as Why does space matter to us? What will ordinary life be like in space? and What will our homes be like on Mars or the Moon? This collection of findings by professionals documents important research, laying the bricks for space-faring civilizations and even consults future space-dwellers—kids—for their visions. Working from the assumption that humankind has a biological need to explore and improve the quality of life, the wide variety of contributors successfully argue that space as a future human habitat is not simply possible, but manifest.

Pathways to Exploration

Pathways to Exploration

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309305105

Category: Science

Page: 279

View: 143

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The United States has publicly funded its human spaceflight program on a continuous basis for more than a half-century, through three wars and a half-dozen recessions, from the early Mercury and Gemini suborbital and Earth orbital missions, to the lunar landings, and thence to the first reusable winged crewed spaceplane that the United States operated for three decades. Today the United States is the major partner in a massive orbital facility - the International Space Station - that is becoming the focal point for the first tentative steps in commercial cargo and crewed orbital space flights. And yet, the long-term future of human spaceflight beyond this project is unclear. Pronouncements by multiple presidents of bold new ventures by Americans to the Moon, to Mars, and to an asteroid in its native orbit, have not been matched by the same commitment that accompanied President Kennedy\'s now fabled 1961 speech-namely, the substantial increase in NASA funding needed to make it happen. Are we still committed to advancing human spaceflight? What should a long-term goal be, and what does the United States need to do to achieve it? Pathways to Exploration explores the case for advancing this endeavor, drawing on the history of rationales for human spaceflight, examining the attitudes of stakeholders and the public, and carefully assessing the technical and fiscal realities. This report recommends maintaining the long-term focus on Mars as the horizon goal for human space exploration. With this goal in mind, the report considers funding levels necessary to maintain a robust tempo of execution, current research and exploration projects and the time/resources needed to continue them, and international cooperation that could contribute to the achievement of spaceflight to Mars. According to Pathways to Exploration, a successful U.S. program would require sustained national commitment and a budget that increases by more than the rate of inflation. In reviving a U.S. human exploration program capable of answering the enduring questions about humanity's destiny beyond our tiny blue planet, the nation will need to grapple with the attitudinal and fiscal realities of the nation today while staying true to a small but crucial set of fundamental principles for the conduct of exploration of the endless frontier. The recommendations of Pathways to Exploration provide a clear map toward a human spaceflight program that inspires students and citizens by furthering human exploration and discovery, while taking into account the long-term commitment necessary to achieve this goal.

Mission to Mars

Mission to Mars

Author: Buzz Aldrin

Publisher: National Geographic Books

ISBN: 9781426210181

Category: Science

Page: 272

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Can astronauts reach Mars by 2035? Absolutely, says Buzz Aldrin, one of the first men to walk on the moon. Celebrated astronaut, brilliant engineer, bestselling author, Aldrin believes it is not only possibly but vital to America’s future to keep pushing the space frontier outward for the sake of exploration, science, development, commerce, and security. What we need, he argues, is a commitment by the U.S. President as rousing as JFK’s promise to reach the moon by the end of the 1960s—an audacious, inspiring goal-and a unified vision for space exploration. In Mission to Mars, Aldrin plots that trajectory, stressing that American-led space exploration is essential to the economic and technological vitality of the nation and the world. Do you dare to dream big? Then join Aldrin in his thought provoking and inspiring Mission to Mars.

Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration

Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309163842

Category: Science

Page: 464

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More than four decades have passed since a human first set foot on the Moon. Great strides have been made in our understanding of what is required to support an enduring human presence in space, as evidenced by progressively more advanced orbiting human outposts, culminating in the current International Space Station (ISS). However, of the more than 500 humans who have so far ventured into space, most have gone only as far as near-Earth orbit, and none have traveled beyond the orbit of the Moon. Achieving humans' further progress into the solar system had proved far more difficult than imagined in the heady days of the Apollo missions, but the potential rewards remain substantial. During its more than 50-year history, NASA's success in human space exploration has depended on the agency's ability to effectively address a wide range of biomedical, engineering, physical science, and related obstacles--an achievement made possible by NASA's strong and productive commitments to life and physical sciences research for human space exploration, and by its use of human space exploration infrastructures for scientific discovery. The Committee for the Decadal Survey of Biological and Physical Sciences acknowledges the many achievements of NASA, which are all the more remarkable given budgetary challenges and changing directions within the agency. In the past decade, however, a consequence of those challenges has been a life and physical sciences research program that was dramatically reduced in both scale and scope, with the result that the agency is poorly positioned to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by the now fully equipped and staffed ISS laboratory, or to effectively pursue the scientific research needed to support the development of advanced human exploration capabilities. Although its review has left it deeply concerned about the current state of NASA's life and physical sciences research, the Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space is nevertheless convinced that a focused science and engineering program can achieve successes that will bring the space community, the U.S. public, and policymakers to an understanding that we are ready for the next significant phase of human space exploration. The goal of this report is to lay out steps and develop a forward-looking portfolio of research that will provide the basis for recapturing the excitement and value of human spaceflight--thereby enabling the U.S. space program to deliver on new exploration initiatives that serve the nation, excite the public, and place the United States again at the forefront of space exploration for the global good.

Human Space Exploration Framework Summary

Human Space Exploration Framework Summary

Author: Barry Leonard

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 9781437980110

Category:

Page: 42

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The Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) provides decision support to NASA senior leadership for planning human spaceflight exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). NASA uses an ongoing, integrated Human Spaceflight (HSF) architecture decisionsupport function to develop and evaluate viable architecture candidates, inform nearterm strategy and budget decisions, and provide analysis continuity over time. Contents of this HEFT report: Context and Approach for Human Space Exploration: Key Guiding Principles; Figures of Merit; Capability-Driven Framework; Technology; Partnerships; Affordability and Cost Analysis; Summary: Key Takeaways; Forward Work. Charts and tables. This is a print on demand report.

Science in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration

Science in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309095938

Category: Science

Page: 37

View: 919

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In January 2004, President Bush announced a new space policy directed at human and robotic exploration of space. The National Academies released a report at the same time that independently addressed many of the issues contained in the new policy. In June, the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy issued a report recommending that NASA ask the National Research Council (NRC) to reevaluate space science priorities to take advantage of the exploration vision. Congress also directed the NRC to conduct a thorough review of the science NASA is proposing to undertake within the initiative. This report provides an initial response to those requests. It presents guiding principles for selecting science missions that enhance and support the exploration program. The report also presents findings and recommendations to help guide NASA's space exploration strategic planning activity. Separate NRC reviews will be carried out of strategic roadmaps that NASA is developing to implement the policy.