Strategy and Politics

Strategy and Politics

Author: Colin S. Gray

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134697922

Category: History

Page: 178

View: 737

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This book examines the subject of strategy and its relationship with politics. Despite the fact that strategy is always the product of political process, the relationship between the two concepts and their ancillary activities has scarcely been touched by scholars. This book corrects that serious deficiency, and explains the high relevance of political factors for matters of general defence. Each chapter aims to show how and why strategy and politics interact and how this interaction has had significant consequences historically. Neither strategy nor politics can make sense if considered alone. Strategy requires direction that can only be provided by political process, while politics cannot be implemented without strategy. In summary, this volume will explain: what strategy is (and is not) why strategy is essential what strategy does and how it does it how strategy is made and executed Written by a leading scholar and former practitioner, this book will be essential reading for all students of military strategy, strategic studies, security studies and war and conflict studies.

Strategy, Doctrine, And The Politics Of Alliance

Strategy, Doctrine, And The Politics Of Alliance

Author: Paul Buteux

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000313314

Category: Political Science

Page: 158

View: 728

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This book examines the processes of nuclear policymaking in NATO and the interaction of alliance strategy with the docrines underlying it. Dr. Buteux focuses on the issue of theatre nuclear force modernisation to illustrate his thesis that NATO's strategic posture results from a political process in which other than purely strategic objectives are sought; agreements on alliance strategy may in fact be related only indirectly to the actual military posture of the alliance and the means available to support it. The book highlights the cumulative effect of strategic and technological change on the strategy and nuclear politics of NATO. Emphasizing that the present strategic environment has called into question many of the strategic and political premises on which NATO's nuclear posture has been based, Dr. Buteux gives special attention to recent proposals to deploy enhanced-radiation weapons (the "neutron bomb") and new intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe. He considers the impact of these proposals on NATO's nuclear policymaking process and on the ability of the alliance to continue to base its deterrent posture on the concept of flexible response

Military Strategy

Military Strategy

Author: John Stone

Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic

ISBN: 1350106240

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 673

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Military strategy is concerned with the translation of armed force into intended political effects. As such, it constitutes one of the most important activities of the past two centuries; and yet during this period it has not always been practised very effectively. In this book, John Stone seeks to explain why this has been the case by examining various instances of strategic practice drawn from the period between the eighteenth century and the present day. He contends that, to be truly effective, strategy must faithfully reflect the political context in which it is formulated. Where strategy has failed, it is frequently because its practitioners have paid undue attention to military-technical matters at the expense of politics.

America's Strategy in World Politics

America's Strategy in World Politics

Author: Nicholas John Spykman

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412817145

Category: Political Science

Page: 542

View: 878

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Less than a year after the United States entered the Second World War, Nicholas Spykman wrote a book that placed the war effort in the broader context of the 1940s global balance of power. In America's Strategy in World Politics, Spykman examined world politics from a realist geopolitical perspective. The United States, he explained, was fighting for its very survival as an independent country because the conquests of Germany and Japan raised the specter of our geopolitical encirclement by hostile forces controlling the power centers of Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia. Spykman warned that the United States could not safely retreat to a defensive position in the Western Hemisphere. Spykman looked beyond the immediate strategic requirements of the Second World War, envisioning a postwar world in which the United States would help shape the global balance of power to meet its security needs. Even though Soviet Russia was our wartime ally, Spykman recognized that a geopolitically unbalanced Soviet Union could threaten to upset the postwar balance of power and thereby endanger U.S. security. Spykman also foresaw the rise of China in postwar Asia, and the likely need for the United States to ally itself with Japan to balance China's power. He also recognized that the Middle East would play a pivotal role in the postwar world. Spykman influenced American postwar statesmen and strategists. During the Cold War, the U.S. sought to deny the Soviet Union political control of Western Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia. Spykman's geopolitical vision of U.S. security, supported by a balanced Eurasian land mass, coupled with his focus on power as the governing force in international relations, makes America's Strategy in World Politics relevant to the twenty-first century.

Strategy and Politics

Strategy and Politics

Author: Emerson Niou

Publisher:

ISBN: 1138019488

Category: Political Science

Page: 432

View: 489

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A Positive Political Theory Primer is designed to introduce students to the application of game theory to modeling political processes. This accessible text covers the essential aspects of game theory while keeping the reader constantly in touch with why political science as a whole would benefit from considering this method. Examining the very phenomena that power political machineries--elections, legislative and committee processes, and international conflict, the book attempts to answer fundamental questions about their nature and function in a clear, accessible manner. Included at the end of each chapter is a set of exercises designed to allow students to practice the construction and analysis of political models. Although the text assumes only an elementary-level training in algebra, students who complete a course around this text will be equipped to read nearly all of the professional literature that makes use of game theoretic analysis. Each chapter also contains suggestions for further reading for those students who wish to broaden their learning and expertise.

Politics and Strategy

Politics and Strategy

Author: Peter Trubowitz

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400838806

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 747

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Why do some national leaders pursue ambitious grand strategies and adventuresome foreign policies while others do not? When do leaders boldly confront foreign threats and when are they less assertive? Politics and Strategy shows that grand strategies are Janus-faced: their formulation has as much to do with a leader's ability to govern at home as it does with maintaining the nation's security abroad. Drawing on the American political experience, Peter Trubowitz reveals how variations in domestic party politics and international power have led presidents from George Washington to Barack Obama to pursue strategies that differ widely in international ambition and cost. He considers why some presidents overreach in foreign affairs while others fail to do enough. Trubowitz pushes the understanding of grand strategy beyond traditional approaches that stress only international forces or domestic interests. He provides insights into how past leaders responded to cross-pressures between geopolitics and party politics, and how similar issues continue to bedevil American statecraft today. He suggests that the trade-offs shaping American leaders' foreign policy choices are not unique--analogous trade-offs confront Chinese and Russian leaders as well. Combining innovative theory and historical analysis, Politics and Strategy answers classic questions of statecraft and offers new ideas for thinking about grand strategies and the leaders who make them.

Politics, Markets, and Grand Strategy

Politics, Markets, and Grand Strategy

Author: Lars S. Skålnes

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 0472110314

Category: Political Science

Page: 276

View: 348

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Why do states sometimes discriminate in favor of certain states and at other times choose to pursue nondiscriminatory policies? In answering these questions, Lars S. Sklnes stresses the international political importance of foreign economic policy, arguing that trade, foreign investment, and foreign aid policies are strategic instruments great powers use to manage political and military relations with allies and adversaries. Sklnes explains changes in foreign economic policy in terms of shifting strategic assessments regarding the importance of military support from allies. When states need military support from their allies to meet threats to their security, they will adopt discriminatory foreign economic policies in an attempt to strengthen alliance relations. When states can go it alone without military support, by contrast, they will not pursue foreign economic policies that discriminate in favor of either allies or other countries. Discriminatory policies, Skalnes argues, are important strategic instruments for several reasons. First, they can be used to tie countries to a military alliance. Second, they are useful as signals of intention. Third, discriminatory policies may strengthen an ally militarily by increasing the economic resources available for military purposes. Sklnes provides detailed accounts of the grand strategies of Germany (1879-1914), France (1887-1914), Great Britain (1919-1939), and the United States (1945-1967). Politics, Markets, and Grand Strategy will be important reading for scholars and students in the fields of national security studies, international political economy, and economic history, and to economists working on problems associated with foreign investment and trade generally and customs union theory and discriminatory trade agreements specifically. Lars S. Sklnes is Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Oregon.

Political Strategy

Political Strategy

Author: Stephen Barber

Publisher:

ISBN: 1903499283

Category: Political Science

Page: 284

View: 891

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This book sheds academic light on the role of strategy in contemporary British party politics. It discusses the concept, nature and role of political strategy, introducing a new way of discovering how parties behave and re-examines events over the last quarter of a century. This book fills an important gap in the politics and history literature. There is no study of strategy in contemporary British politics. Furthermore, unlike other books where strategy is seen as either a communication or campaigning term or, in pure political science, just about theoretical positioning, this book makes use of the strategy literature (which sits outside of political science) for the first time to help better understand the behaviour of political parties. Drawing on political history and taking a comparative approach, the book describes strategic behaviour in three arenas: leadership and organisational culture; the creation of critical mass, momentous, electoral support; and the state of strategic disorder when the party endures a failure of direction. Including ten extended interviews with key political players such as Charles Kennedy, Norman Lamont and Tony Wright, the book combines the theoreti

Power, Perception, and Politics in the Making of Iranian Grand Strategy

Power, Perception, and Politics in the Making of Iranian Grand Strategy

Author: Kevjn Lim

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783031043901

Category: Political Science

Page: 353

View: 366

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This book explains changes to Iranian grand strategy over the past four decades, and it does so by advancing a multicausal model that unifies the three main paradigms of International Relations (IR) theory. Hence, ideas (constructivism) mediate between the structure of material capabilities (realism) and agents (liberalism) and interact with each to produce, respectively, threat perception and political preferences. Using these two explanatory factors, the author demonstrates how the Islamic Republic’s grand strategy has systematically varied over time to produce a mix of outcomes that includes balancing, expansionism, bandwagoning, appeasement, engagement and retrenchment. Beyond its theoretical contribution, this book is policy-relevant in that it explains – and predicts – the external conduct of what is arguably the Middle East’s most consequential actor, with implications reverberating far beyond the region. Academic in conception and rigor, the book is intended not only for specialists and practitioners but appeals to the lay reader interested in the broader Middle East/West Asia, the region’s relationship with major powers, and regional conflict dynamics.