Securing U.S. Innovation

Securing U.S. Innovation

Author: Darren E. Tromblay

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781442256361

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

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Historical and recent examples illustrate the threats to innovation, the various approaches to mitigating them, and how the evolution of the innovative process now requires rethinking how the United States can benefit from and preserve its cutting edge human capital.

Space Exploration and Humanity: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]

Space Exploration and Humanity: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]

Author: American Astronautical Society

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781851095193

Category: Science

Page: 1318

View: 257

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A complete history of human endeavors in space, this book also moves beyond the traditional topics of human spaceflight, space technology, and space science to include political, social, cultural, and economic issues, and also commercial, civilian, and military applications. • 580 articles describing various aspects of manned and unmanned space exploration, including a full range of social, technological, and political issues, such as government policy, nationalism, and the technology/military-driven economy • Six overview essays, introducing each of the encyclopedia's major sections and putting that aspect of space exploration into historical context • 136 contributors, many who are leading space historians and experts affiliated with the American Astronautical Society, make firsthand knowledge and fresh insights accessible to all audiences • Numerous photos, including stunning shots from space, star charts, technical drawings, and more • Short bibliographies conclude each entry, pointing readers to the best sources to find out more about the topic • A Glossary defining the various technical terms encountered in the encyclopedia

North Korea's Cyber Operations

North Korea's Cyber Operations

Author: Jenny Jun

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781442259034

Category: Political Science

Page: 106

View: 700

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This report presents an open source analysis of North Korea’s cyber operations capabilities and its strategic implications for the United States and South Korea. The purpose is to mitigate the current knowledge gap among various academic and policy communities on the topic by synthesizing authoritative and comprehensive open source reference material. The report is divided into three chapters, the first chapter examining North Korea’s cyber strategy. The authors then provide an assessment of North Korea’s cyber operations capabilities by examining the organizational structure, history, and functions of North Korea’s cyber units, their supporting educational training and technology base, and past cyber attacks widely attributed to North Korea. This assessment is followed by a discussion on policy implications for U.S. and ROK policymakers and the larger security community.

Volcanism and Global Environmental Change

Volcanism and Global Environmental Change

Author: Anja Schmidt

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316194966

Category: Science

Page:

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Covering a key connection between geological processes and life on Earth, this multidisciplinary volume describes the effects of volcanism on the environment by combining present-day observations of volcanism and environmental changes with information from past eruptions preserved in the geologic record. The book discusses the origins, features and timing of volumetrically large volcanic eruptions; methods for assessing gas and tephra release in the modern day and the palaeo-record; and the impacts of volcanic gases and aerosols on the environment, from ozone depletion to mass extinctions. The significant advances that have been made in recent years in quantifying and understanding the impacts of present and past volcanic eruptions are presented and review chapters are included, making this a valuable book for academic researchers and graduate students in volcanology, climate science, palaeontology, atmospheric chemistry, and igneous petrology.

Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration

Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309163842

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 590

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More than four decades have passed since a human first set foot on the Moon. Great strides have been made in our understanding of what is required to support an enduring human presence in space, as evidenced by progressively more advanced orbiting human outposts, culminating in the current International Space Station (ISS). However, of the more than 500 humans who have so far ventured into space, most have gone only as far as near-Earth orbit, and none have traveled beyond the orbit of the Moon. Achieving humans' further progress into the solar system had proved far more difficult than imagined in the heady days of the Apollo missions, but the potential rewards remain substantial. During its more than 50-year history, NASA's success in human space exploration has depended on the agency's ability to effectively address a wide range of biomedical, engineering, physical science, and related obstacles-an achievement made possible by NASA's strong and productive commitments to life and physical sciences research for human space exploration, and by its use of human space exploration infrastructures for scientific discovery. The Committee for the Decadal Survey of Biological and Physical Sciences acknowledges the many achievements of NASA, which are all the more remarkable given budgetary challenges and changing directions within the agency. In the past decade, however, a consequence of those challenges has been a life and physical sciences research program that was dramatically reduced in both scale and scope, with the result that the agency is poorly positioned to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by the now fully equipped and staffed ISS laboratory, or to effectively pursue the scientific research needed to support the development of advanced human exploration capabilities. Although its review has left it deeply concerned about the current state of NASA's life and physical sciences research, the Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space is nevertheless convinced that a focused science and engineering program can achieve successes that will bring the space community, the U.S. public, and policymakers to an understanding that we are ready for the next significant phase of human space exploration. The goal of this report is to lay out steps and develop a forward-looking portfolio of research that will provide the basis for recapturing the excitement and value of human spaceflight-thereby enabling the U.S. space program to deliver on new exploration initiatives that serve the nation, excite the public, and place the United States again at the forefront of space exploration for the global good.

Global Environmental Change

Global Environmental Change

Author: Robert Guthrie Fleagle

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 0275944778

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 313

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This study examines how threats to the environment--the facts and probable impacts of global environment change--deserve local, national, and international attention.

Geoengineering Discourse Confronting Climate Change

Geoengineering Discourse Confronting Climate Change

Author: Brynna Jacobson

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781793635297

Category: Nature

Page: 283

View: 958

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This research examines the trajectory of the contested field of geoengineering through critical discourse analysis of relevant science policy reports, news media journalism, and congressional hearings. The analysis reveals the evolution of notions of normalcy, legitimacy, and imperative around the controversial field of geoengineering.

Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in the Assessment of Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceutical Products

Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in the Assessment of Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceutical Products

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309310031

Category: Medical

Page: 150

View: 596

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Despite the extensive body of evidence that informs regulatory decisions on pharmaceutical products, significant uncertainties persist, including the underlying variability in human biology, factors associated with the chemistry of a drug, and limitations in the research and clinical trial process itself that might limit the generalizability of results. As a result, regulatory reviewers are consistently required to draw conclusions about a drug's safety and efficacy from imperfect data. Efforts are underway within the drug development community to enhance the evaluation and communication of the benefits and risks associated with pharmaceutical products, aimed at increasing the predictability, transparency, and efficiency of pharmaceutical regulatory decision making. Effectively communicating regulatory decisions necessarily includes explanation of the impact of uncertainty on decision making. On February 12 and May 12, 2014, the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation held public workshops to advance the development of more systematic and structured approaches to characterize and communicate the sources of uncertainty in the assessment of benefits and risks, and to consider their implications for pharmaceutical regulatory decisions. Workshop presentations and discussions on February 12 were convened to explore the science of identifying and characterizing uncertainty in scientific evidence and approaches to translate uncertainties into decisions that reflect the values of stakeholders. The May 12 workshop presentations and discussions explored tools and approaches to communicating about scientific uncertainties to a range of stakeholders in the drug development process. Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in the Assessment of Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceutical Products summarizes the presentation and discussion of both events. This report explores potential analytical and communication approaches and identifies key considerations on their development, evaluation, and incorporation into pharmaceutical benefit- risk assessment throughout the entire drug development lifecycle.

Scientific Satellite and Moon-Based Earth Observation for Global Change

Scientific Satellite and Moon-Based Earth Observation for Global Change

Author: Huadong Guo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811380310

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 618

View: 974

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Global change involves complex and far-reaching variations in the Earth’s systems, and satellite observations have been widely used in global change studies. Over the past five decades, Earth observation has developed into a comprehensive system that can conduct dynamic monitoring of the land, the oceans and the atmosphere at the local, regional and even global scale. At the same time, although a large number of Earth observation satellites have been launched, very few of them are used in global change studies. The lack of scientific satellite programs greatly hinders research on global change. This book proposes using a series of global change scientific satellites to establish a scientific observation grid for global environmental change monitoring from space, and offers the first comprehensive review of lunar-based Earth observation. These scientific satellites could provide not only basic datasets but also scientific support in facilitating advances in international global change research.