Pest Risk Assessment of the Importation Into the United States of Unprocessed Eucalyptus Logs and Chips from South America

Pest Risk Assessment of the Importation Into the United States of Unprocessed Eucalyptus Logs and Chips from South America



ISBN: MINN:31951D02988673H

Category: Eucalyptus

Page: 134

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In this report, we assess the unmitigated pest risk potential of importing Eucalyptus logs and chips from South America into the United States. To do this, we estimated the likelihood and consequences of introducing representative insects and pathogens of concern. Nineteen individual pest risk assessments were prepared, eleven dealing with insects and eight with pathogens. The selected organisms were representative examples of insects and pathogens found on the foliage, on the bark, in the bark, and in the wood of Eucalyptus spp. Among the insects and pathogens assessed, eight were rated a high risk potential: purple moth (Sarsina violescens), scolytid bark and ambrosia beetles (Scolytopsis brasiliensis, Xyleborus retusus, Xyleborus biconicus, Xyleborus spp.), carpenterworm (Chilecomadia valdiviana) on Eucalyptus nitens, round-headed wood borers (Chydarteres striatus, Retrachyderes thoracicus, Trachyderes spp., Steirastoma breve, Stenodontes spinibarbis), eucalyptus longhorned borer (Phoracantha semipunctata), Botryosphaeria cankers (Botryosphaeria dothidea, Botryosphaeria obtusa, Botryosphaeria ribi), Ceratocystis canker (Ceratocystis fimbriata), and pink disease (Erythricium salmonicolor). A moderate pest risk potential was assigned to eleven other organisms or groups of organisms: eucalypt weevils (Gonipterus spp.), carpenterworm (Chilecomadia valdiviana) on two Eucalyptus species other than E. nitens, platypodid ambrosia beetle (Megaplatypus parasulcatus), yellow phorancantha borer (Phoracantha recurva), subterranean termites (Coptotermes spp., Heterotermes spp.), foliar diseases (Aulographina eucalypti, Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium spp., Phaeophleospora spp., Mycosphaerella spp.), eucalyptus rust (Puccinia psidii), Cryphonectria canker (Cryphonectria cubensis), Cytospora cankers (Cytospora eucalypticola, Cytospora eucalyptina), Coniothyrium canker (Coniothyrium zuluense), and root and stem rots (Armillaria spp., Phellinus spp., Ganoderma sp., Gymnopilus spectabilis). For those organisms of concern that are associated with logs and chips of South American Eucalyptus spp., specific phytosanitary measures may be required to ensure the quarantine safety of proposed importations.

Bark Beetle Management, Ecology, and Climate Change

Bark Beetle Management, Ecology, and Climate Change

Author: Kamal Gandhi

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128224403

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 926

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Bark Beetle Management, Ecology, and Climate Change provides the most updated and comprehensive knowledge on the complex effects of global warming upon the economically and ecologically important bark beetle species and their host trees. This authoritative reference synthesizes information on how forest disturbances and environmental changes due to current and future climate changes alter the ecology and management of bark beetles in forested landscapes. Written by international experts on bark beetle ecology, this book covers topics ranging from changes in bark beetle distributions and addition of novel hosts due to climate change, interactions of insects with altered host physiology and disturbance regimes, ecosystem-level impacts of bark beetle outbreaks due to climate change, multi-trophic changes mediated via climate change, and management of bark beetles in altered forests and climate conditions. Bark Beetle Management, Ecology, and Climate Change is an important resource for entomologists, as well as forest health specialists, policy makers, and conservationists who are interested in multi-faceted impacts of climate change on forest insects at the organismal, population, and community-levels. The only book that addresses the impacts of global warming on bark beetles with feedback loops to forest patterns and processes Discusses altered disturbance regimes due to climate change with implications for bark beetles and associated organisms Led by a team of editors whose expertise includes entomology, pathology, ecology, forestry, modeling, and tree physiology

Biodeterioration of Wooden Cultural Heritage

Biodeterioration of Wooden Cultural Heritage

Author: Anastasia Pournou

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030465049

Category: Nature

Page: 538

View: 914

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Since prehistoric times and throughout the course of human evolution, wood has been an integral part of all civilizations. Wooden Cultural Heritage can be found worldwide, providing valuable information on the social and economic context of human history. Nonetheless, as a natural cellulosic material, wood shows low resistance to biodeterioration and thus wooden Cultural Heritage often fails to escape decomposition in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This book provides a comprehensive overview on the biodeterioration of wooden Cultural Heritage and describes the decay mechanisms of key organisms and microorganisms encountered in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Cultural Heritage professionals, researchers and academics may explore within this book the associations between deteriogens, habitats and decay, which will assist them to understand wood biodeterioration and design effective prevention, mitigation and remediation strategies. The book presents case studies around the world to demonstrate the impact of biogenic deterioration on wooden Cultural Heritage and illustrates mechanisms and patterns in order to be a useful handbook of decay diagnosis. Lastly, by adopting a holistic approach to wood decay, basic concepts of wood technology, ecology, and deteriogens' biology are introduced, permitting readers of different scientific backgrounds to easily comprehend wood biodeterioration.

Insects and Diseases of Mediterranean Forest Systems

Insects and Diseases of Mediterranean Forest Systems

Author: Timothy D. Paine

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319247441

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 892

View: 702

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Insect and disease issues are often specific to the Mediterranean forest systems rather than shared with the temperate forests. In addition to the specific native insects and diseases, the forests are subject to the invasion of exotic species. The forests are also at risk from high degrees of human activity, including changing patterns of forest fires, land management activities, intensive plantation forestry using introduced timber species from other Mediterranean climate zones, and atmospheric deposition. Combined with elements of global climate change that may disproportionately affect Mediterranean climate systems, this creates a number of significant management issues that are unique to the Mediterranean forests. It is our goal that the information contained in this volume will contribute to understanding the unique aspects of Mediterranean forest systems and to protecting these critical resources.