Sustainable Hydrogen Production Processes

Sustainable Hydrogen Production Processes

Author: José Luz Silveira

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319416168

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 185

View: 141

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This work presents a comprehensive investigation of the most significant renewable hydrogen production processes. Technical, economic and ecological studies are described for the processes of steam reforming of ethanol, natural gas and biogas; water electrolysis with energy from renewable sources (wind power, photovoltaic and hydroelectric), and hydrogen production using algae. Aimed at mechanical and chemical engineering graduate students and researchers involved in environmental sciences, sustainable energy and bioenergy research, this book introduces readers to the latest developments in the field and provides essential reference material for future research. The book first presents a comprehensive literature review of the processes studied. Subsequently, it provides a technical report on assessing the energetic efficiency for each hydrogen production process, as well as an economic study of the respective hydrogen production costs. Lastly, the ecological efficiency of each process is addressed. Over the past few decades, the UNESP’s Group of Optimization of Energetic Systems, headed by Professor José Luz Silveira, has been pursuing research in the field of renewable energy generation. A major part of the group’s research focuses on the production of hydrogen as a fuel and its important contribution to mitigating the environmental impacts caused by pollutant emissions.

Advanced Catalysis in Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid and Methanol

Advanced Catalysis in Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid and Methanol

Author: Dmitri A. Bulushev

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783039363803

Category: Science

Page: 122

View: 301

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This Special Issue is related to studies of the hydrogen production from formic acid decomposition. It is based on five research papers and two reviews. The reviews discuss the liquid phase formic acid decomposition over bimetallic (PdAg), molecular (Ru, Ir, Fe, Co), and heterogenized molecular catalysts. The gas-phase reaction is studied over highly dispersed Pd, Pt, Au, Cu, and Ni supported catalysts. It is shown that the nature of the catalyst’s support plays an important role for the reaction. Thus, N-doping of the carbon support provides a significant promotional effect. One of the reasons for the high activity of the N-doped catalysts is the formation of single-atom active sites stabilized by pyridinic N species present in the support. It is demonstrated that carbon materials can be N-doped in different ways. It can be performed either directly from N-containing compounds during the carbon synthesis or by a post-synthetic deposition of N-containing compounds on the carbon support with known properties. The Issue could be useful for specialists in catalysis and nanomaterials as well as for graduate students studying chemistry and chemical engineering. The reported results can be applied for development of catalysts for the hydrogen production from different liquid organic hydrogen carriers.

Membrane Reactors for Hydrogen Production Processes

Membrane Reactors for Hydrogen Production Processes

Author: Marcello De Falco

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780857291516

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 235

View: 785

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Membrane Reactors for Hydrogen Production Processes deals with technological and economic aspects of hydrogen selective membranes application in hydrogen production chemical processes. Membrane Reactors for Hydrogen Production Processes starts with an overview of membrane integration in the chemical reaction environment, formulating the thermodynamics and kinetics of membrane reactors and assessing the performance of different process architectures. Then, the state of the art of hydrogen selective membranes, membrane manufacturing processes and the mathematical modeling of membrane reactors are discussed. A review of the most useful applications from an industrial point of view is given. These applications include: natural gas steam reforming, autothermal reforming, water gas shift reaction, decomposition of hydrogen sulphide, and alkanes dehydrogenation. The final part is dedicated to the description of a pilot plant where the novel configuration was implemented at a semi-industrial scale. Plant engineers, researchers and postgraduate students will find Membrane Reactors for Hydrogen Production Processes a comprehensive guide to the state of the art of membrane reactor technology.

Biohydrogen Production and Hybrid Process Development

Biohydrogen Production and Hybrid Process Development

Author: Zhao Youcal

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780128232507

Category: Science

Page: 566

View: 520

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Biohydrogen Production and Hybrid Process Development: Energy and Resource Recovery from Food Waste explores the production of biohydrogen from food waste via anaerobic fermentation, focusing on effect factors, control methods and optimization. The book introduces food waste treatment and disposal technologies, including operational principles and process control. The authors discuss the use of aged refuse, the effect of several key factors on anaerobic gas production rate, process parameters optimization for enhancing biohydrogen yield, key factors in biohydrogen production from sewage sludge fermentation, and new developments in nutrition recovery from food waste. This book spans the entire production cycle, from waste recovery to its conversion processes, end-product, and by-product utilization, providing engineering researchers, PhD students, and industry practitioners in the field of biohydrogen production, biogas production, biomass conversion, and food waste management with a thorough background on the production of hydrogen via anaerobic fermentation. Covers the fundamentals and applications of the use of food waste for biohydrogen production through anaerobic digestion Explores core challenges of biohydrogen production operations, including details on process optimization and control, and multiple case studies grounded in current industrial practice Includes methodological perspectives comparing and contrasting approaches to biohydrogen production using anaerobic digestion with optimization techniques for production efficiency

Hydrogen Generation, Storage and Utilization

Hydrogen Generation, Storage and Utilization

Author: Jin Zhong Zhang

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118875179

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 344

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The potential use of hydrogen as a clean and renewable fuelresource has generated significant attention in recent years,especially given the rapidly increasing demand for energy sourcesand the dwindling availability of fossil fuels. Hydrogen is an“ideal fuel” in several ways. Its only byproduct ofconsumption is water; it is the most abundant element in theuniverse; and it is available at low cost. Hydrogen generation ispossible via a number of possible chemical processes, to separatethe hydrogen from its bond with atoms such as carbon, nitrogen, andoxygen. In this book, the authors provide the scientific foundations forestablished and innovative methods of hydrogen extraction; outlinesolutions for its storage; and illustrate its applications in thefields of petroleum, chemical, metallurgical, physics, andmanufacturing. Addresses the three fundamental aspects of hydrogen as a fuelresource: generation, storage, and utilization Provides theoretical basis for the chemical processes requiredfor hydrogen generation, including solar, photoelectrochemical,thermochemical, and fermentation methods Discusses storage of hydrogen based on metal hydrides,hydrocarbons, high pressure compression, and cryogenics Examines the applications of hydrogen utilization in the fieldsof petroleum, chemical, metallurgical, physics, andmanufacturing Contains over 90 figures, including 27 color figures

Advances In Hydrogen Generation Technologies

Advances In Hydrogen Generation Technologies

Author: Murat Eyvaz

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9781789235340

Category: Science

Page: 136

View: 232

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Among energy sources, hydrogen gas is clean and renewable and has the potential to solve the growing energy crisis in today's society because of its high-energy density and noncarbon fuel properties. It is also used for many potential applications in nonpolluting vehicles, fuel cells, home heating systems, and aircraft. In addition, using hydrogen as an energy carrier is a long-term option to reduce carbon dioxide emissions worldwide by obtaining high-value hydrocarbons through the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This book presents the recent progresses and developments in water-splitting processes as well as other hydrogen generation technologies with challenges and future perspectives from the point of energy sustainability.

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

Author: Detlef Stolten

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527327119

Category: Science

Page: 913

View: 450

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Authored by 40 of the most prominent and renowned international scientists from academia, industry, institutions and government, this handbook explores mature, evolving technologies for a clean, economically viable alternative to non-renewable energy. In so doing, it includes how hydrogen can be safely produced, stored, transported and utilized, while also covering such broader topics as the environmental impact, education and regulatory developments.

Science and Engineering of Hydrogen-Based Energy Technologies

Science and Engineering of Hydrogen-Based Energy Technologies

Author: Paulo Emilio Miranda

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128142523

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 438

View: 523

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Science and Engineering of Hydrogen-Based Energy Technologies explores the generation of energy using hydrogen and hydrogen-rich fuels in fuel cells from the perspective of its integration into renewable energy systems using the most sound and current scientific knowledge. The book first examines the evolution of energy utilization and the role expected to be played by hydrogen energy technologies in the world’s energy mix, not just for energy generation, but also for carbon capture, storage and utilization. It provides a general overview of the most common and promising types of fuel cells, such as PEMFCs, SOFCs and direct alcohol fuel cells. The co-production of chemical and electrolysis cells, as well as the available and future materials for fuel cells production are discussed. It then delves into the production of hydrogen from biomass, including waste materials, and from excess electricity produced by other renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro and geothermal. The main technological approaches to hydrogen storage are presented, along with several possible hydrogen energy engineering applications. Science and Engineering of Hydrogen-Based Energy Technologies’s unique approach to hydrogen energy systems makes it useful for energy engineering researchers, professionals and graduate students in this field. Policy makers, energy planning and management professionals, and energy analysts can also benefit from the comprehensive overview that it provides. Presents engineering fundamentals, commercially deployed technologies, up-and-coming developments and applications through a systemic approach Explores the integration of hydrogen technologies in renewable energy systems, including solar, wind, bioenergy and ocean energy Covers engineering standards, guidelines and regulations, as well as policy and social aspects for large-scale deployment of these technologies

Energy Carriers And Conversion Systems With Emphasis On Hydrogen - Volume I

Energy Carriers And Conversion Systems With Emphasis On Hydrogen - Volume I

Author: Tokio Ohta

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 9781905839292

Category:

Page: 380

View: 890

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Energy Carriers and Conversion Systems is a component of Encyclopedia of Energy Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty Encyclopedias. The Theme on Energy Carriers and Conversion Systems with contributions from distinguished experts in the field discusses energy matters of great relevance to our world such as: Historical Background, Systematic Concept, General Sketch, and Key Technologies; Water Splitting Science and Technology; Hydrogen Storage and Transportation; Fuels Cells and Other Applications. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Biohydrogen

Biohydrogen

Author: Ayhan Demirbas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781848825116

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 276

View: 525

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Biohydrogen: For Future Engine Fuel Demands covers the production, purification, storage, pipeline transport, usage, and safety of biohydrogen. Hydrogen promises to be the most significant fuel source of the future, due to its global availability and the fact that water is its only by-product. Biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, bio-oil, and biohydrogen are produced using technologies for thermochemically and biologically converting biomass. Hydrogen fuel production technologies can make use of either non-renewable sources, or renewable sources such as wind, solar, and biorenewable resources. Biohydrogen: For Future Engine Fuel Demands reviews all of the modern biomass-based transportation fuels, including bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, biohydrogen, and fuel cells. The book also discusses issues of biohydrogen economy, policy and environmental impact. Biohydrogen looks set to be the fuel of choice in the future, replacing both fossil fuels and biorenewable liquid fuels.

Anaerobic Biotechnology for Bioenergy Production

Anaerobic Biotechnology for Bioenergy Production

Author: Samir Kumar Khanal

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119949428

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 320

View: 259

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Anaerobic biotechnology is a cost-effective and sustainable means of treating waste and wastewaters that couples treatment processes with the reclamation of useful by-products and renewable biofuels. This means of treating municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastes allows waste products to be converted to value-added products such as biofuels, biofertilizers, and other chemicals. Anaerobic Biotechnology for Bioenergy Production: Principles and Applications provides the reader with basic principles of anaerobic processes alongside practical uses of anaerobic biotechnology options. This book will be a valuable reference to any professional currently considering or working with anaerobic biotechnology options.

Biohydrogen

Biohydrogen

Author: Ganesh D. Saratale

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 9780128083598

Category: Science

Page: 588

View: 649

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The world’s energy markets rely heavily on fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum, and natural gases). However, due to increasing energy demands, depleting reserves of fossil fuels, and increasing negative effects on the environment (e.g., global warming and climate changes), as well as growing political instability in oil-producing nations, the world is facing a major energy threat that needs to be solved by virtue of alternative energy sources utilizing renewable resources. The only natural, renewable carbon resource known with large enough capacity to substitute for fossil fuels is biomass. Thus, energy from biomass is considered to be one of the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels. Among the existing biomass energy/biofuels, biohydrogen has received considerable attention as it is clean, renewable, has a high energy content, and does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Biomass is projected as a virtually eternal raw material for hydrogen (H2) production; however, the main bottleneck is the low hydrogen yield arising from poor efficiency on direct microbial assimilation of biomass. Therefore, technologies leading to more efficient and commercially viable production of biohydrogen from biomass and other renewable resources are urgently demanded. This chapter sheds light on some of the practical approaches of fermentative H2-generating processes utilizing a variety of biomass and renewable resources as substrate. This chapter also emphasizes biohydrogen production technology that could maximize hydrogen yield by designing efficient bioprocess integration and energy and waste minimization. Improving the hydrolysis of biomass has been recognized as a key step toward biohydrogen production. Considerable research efforts made on improving the pretreatment and hydrolysis of biomass materials are also addressed. Emphasis is given to discussion of the process based on important operating factors involved and to delineation of some of the process limitations. The aim of this chapter is to provide rapidly expanding information on biohydrogen production from renewable resources and to offer clues and possibilities for enhancing the performance of natural waste utilization and dark fermentative hydrogen production to resolve issues related to food security, climate change, energy security, and clean development in the future.