Environmental Degradation and Transformation of Organic Chemicals

Environmental Degradation and Transformation of Organic Chemicals

Author: Alasdair H. Neilson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420006773

Category: Science

Page: 738

View: 707

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Addressing the persistent environmental threat of organic chemicals with a fresh approach to degradation and transformation processes, Environmental Degradation and Transformation of Organic Chemicals examines a wide range of compounds as well as abiotic and microbiological reactions mediated by microorganisms. The book emphasizes the pathways used

Organic Chemicals in the Environment

Organic Chemicals in the Environment

Author: Alasdair H. Neilson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439826379

Category: Science

Page: 1051

View: 970

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Addressing the persistent environmental threat of organic chemicals with a fresh approach to degradation and transformation processes, Organic Chemicals in the Environment: Mechanisms of Degradation and Transformation, Second Edition examines a wide range of compounds as well as abiotic and microbiological reactions mediated by microorganisms. The book emphasizes the pathways used and the broad classes of enzymes involved. It provides an overview of experimental procedures with detailed coverage of the organic compounds that are considered to be xenobiotics. The book begins by providing a broad perspective on abiotic and biotic reactions, including the significance of a range of environmental determinants. The following chapters briefly introduce experimental procedures and emphasize those procedures for establishing the structure of metabolites using isotopes and physical methods. Next, the authors outline details of biochemical reactions involved in the biodegradation of the major groups of aliphatic, carbocyclic aromatic, and heterocyclic compounds. They end with coverage of bioremediation that has attracted increasing concern because of the hazard presented by the disposal of unwanted chemicals or by-products from their manufacture. Broad and comprehensive, this book provides a cohesive treatment of the subject. It contains an extensive set of literature references and numerous illustrative figures. The authors use a mechanistic approach with emphasis on the pathways, and the principles that emerge provide a guide not only for specific compounds but also for those having a more remote structural resemblance.

Environmental Organic Chemistry for Engineers

Environmental Organic Chemistry for Engineers

Author: James G. Speight

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 9780128006689

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 540

View: 227

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Environmental Organic Chemistry for Engineers clearly defines the principles of environmental organic chemistry and the role they play in forming remediation strategies. In this reference, the author explores parameter estimation methods, the thermodynamics, and kinetics needed to predict the fate, transports, and reactivity of organic compounds in air, water, and soils. The book's four part treatment starts with the classification of organic molecules and physical properties of natural organic matter, halocarbons, phenols, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphates, and surfactants. An overview of remediation technologies and a discussion of the interactions that lead to physical properties that affect chemical distribution in the environment is also detailed, as are the important reaction classes of organic molecules, including substituent effects and structure and activity relationships found in Part Two and Three. Part four is devoted to the strengths and weaknesses of different remediation technologies and when they should be employed. Clearly defines the principles of environmental organic chemistry and the role they play in forming remediation strategies Includes the tools and methods for classifying environmental contaminants found in air, water, and soil Presents a wide-range of remediation technologies and when they should be deployed for maximum effect

Transformation Products of Synthetic Chemicals in the Environment

Transformation Products of Synthetic Chemicals in the Environment

Author: Alistair Boxall

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540882725

Category: Science

Page: 257

View: 549

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When a synthetic chemical is released into the environment it may be degraded by abiotic and biotic processes. These degradation processes usually involve a cascade of reactions resulting in the formation of a number of transformation products. While we usually know a great deal about the environmental properties, fate and effects of parent synthetic chemicals, our understanding of the impacts of transformation products is much less developed. As such, this volume brings together chapters from leading researchers in the field of transformation products in the environment and describes how these products are formed, how they move through the environment, and their environmental effects. The book also presents modelling and analytical approaches for understanding the occurrence, fate and effects of transformation products in the environment. It is of interest to scientists in academia, the chemicals industry and regulators, as well as graduate students in Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY - Volume I

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY - Volume I

Author: Aleksandar Sabljic

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 9781848261860

Category: Science

Page: 422

View: 448

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Environmental and Ecological Chemistry is a component of Encyclopedia of Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Environmental and Ecological Chemistry prsents the essential aspects such as: Fundamental Environmental Chemistry; Atmospheric Chemistry; Soil Chemistry; Aquatic Chemistry; Ecological Chemistry; Chemistry of Organic Pollutants Including Agrochemicals. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Environmental Degradation

Environmental Degradation

Author: Vijay P. Singh

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030955427

Category: Agriculture

Page: 547

View: 468

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This book discusses problems, challenges, and mitigation strategies in the wake of environmental degradation. It suggests proactive solutions to problems of environmental degradation for strategic planning as well as their effective delivery, and problems arising due to growth in population, industry, and land use change. The uniqueness of the book is its broader spectrum of coverage with related interconnections and interdependence of various aspects. Presenting a wide spectrum of viewpoints and approaches, the book covers topics, such as deforestation impacts (land use and land cover, soil erosion); impacts on climate change and human health; treatment of industrial, municipal, biological waste disposal and their impacts on soil, water, and air; recovery/remediation processes and technologies; impacts of pesticides and chemical fertilizers on soil degradation and groundwater; socio-economic environmental sustainability; and socio-economic health impacts. Particular focus is placed on strategic planning and methodological handling of environmental degradation and remediation through various processes and treatment technologies. This book will be useful to researchers, professionals, policy makers, and environmental engineers.

Fate of Pesticides and Chemicals in the Environment

Fate of Pesticides and Chemicals in the Environment

Author: Jerald L. Schnoor

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471502324

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 478

View: 513

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A result of important bilateral scientific agreements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union on the fate of chemicals and pesticides in the environment. Written by experts in both countries, it familiarizes the reader with recent state-of-the-art research being conducted in the areas of agricultural management and water pollution control. A number of models are provided to give the reader a concise grasp of exposure and ecological risk assessments involving these pollutants. Focuses on the necessity to improve our deteriorating standards of public health, environmental science and technology with a total systems approach through the pooled talents of scientists and engineers.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY - Volume II

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY - Volume II

Author: Aleksandar Sabljic

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 9781848262065

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 991

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Environmental and Ecological Chemistry is a component of Encyclopedia of Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Environmental and Ecological Chemistry prsents the essential aspects such as: Fundamental Environmental Chemistry; Atmospheric Chemistry; Soil Chemistry; Aquatic Chemistry; Ecological Chemistry; Chemistry of Organic Pollutants Including Agrochemicals. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry, Second Edition

Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry, Second Edition

Author: Des W. Connell

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781566706766

Category: Science

Page: 479

View: 188

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Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry, Second Edition provides a theoretical basis for the behavior and biological effects of natural chemical entities and contaminants in natural systems, concluding with a practical focus on risk assessment and the environmental management of chemicals. The text uses molecular properties such as polarity, water solubility, and vapor pressure as the starting point for understanding the environmental chemistry of various contaminants in soil, water, and the atmosphere. It explains biological processes such as respiration and photosynthesis and their relationship to greenhouse gases. The book then introduces environmental toxicology and describes the distribution, transport, and transformation of contaminants, including PCBs and dioxins, plastics, petroleum and aromatic hydrocarbons, soaps and detergents, and pesticides. The author highlights the relationship between specific chemical properties and their environmental and biological effects. Other topics discussed include partition behavior, fugacity, and genotoxicity, particularly involving carcinogens. The second edition updates the contents and incorporates the latest advances in the field since the 1997 edition was published. It presents an entirely new chapter on metals, which underlines the correlation between metallic properties and their behavior in the environment, as well as new sections on radionuclides and acid drainage water. The chapter on atmospheric chemistry and pollution has been substantially expanded including photochemical smog, the Greenhouse Effect, and pollution processes in the atmosphere and acid rain. The author also adds recent approaches to ecotoxicology, ecological, and human risk assessments to include the probabilistic approach. Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry, Second Edition is a practical textbook for teaching students the basic concepts of chemistry in the framework of the environment and a practical reference for anyone involved in the management and disposal of industrial chemicals and emissions, occupational health and safety, and the protection of the natural environment.

Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment

Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment

Author: Lucjan Pawlowski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461532828

Category: Science

Page: 824

View: 583

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Over the last decade and a half, an environmental conference series has emerged to become one of the major international forums on the chemical aspects of environmental protection. The forum is called Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment CCPE). The sponsors of this CPE series have included the Chemical Societies of Poland, France, Belgium, Italy, and the U.S.A., the European Federation of Chemical Societies, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the American Society of Testing and Materials, the International Ozone Association, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the Ministries of the Environment of Poland, France, Belgium, and Italy, US Environmental Protection Agency, more than twenty universities and institutes of higher learning, and five academies of sciences. The first meeting in this series was organized in 1976 at the Marie Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin, Poland. The conference dealt with various physicochemical methodologies for water and wastewater treatment research projects that were jointly sponsored by US EPA and Poland.

Handbook on Biodegradation and Biological Treatment of Hazardous Organic Compounds

Handbook on Biodegradation and Biological Treatment of Hazardous Organic Compounds

Author: M.H. van Agteren

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 079234989X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 506

View: 349

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The introduction of synthetic organic chemicals into the environment during the last few decades has given rise to major concern about the ecotoxicological effects and ultimate fate of these compounds. The pollutants that are considered to be most hazardous because of their intrinsic toxicity, high exposure level, or recalcitrant behavior in the environment have been placed on blacklists and other policy priority lists. The fate of synthetic compounds that enter the environment is mainly determined by their rate of biodegradation, which therefore also has a major effect on the degree of bioaccumulation and the risk of ecotoxicological effects. The degree and rate of biodegradation is also of critical importance for the feasibility of biological techniques to clean up contaminated sites and waste streams. The biodegradation of xenobiotics has thus been the subject of numerous studies, which resulted in thousands of publications in scientific journals, books, and conference proceedings. These studies led to a deeper understanding of the diversity of biodegradation processes. As a result, it has become possible to enhance the rate of degradation of recalcitrant pollutants during biological treatment and to design completely new treatment processes. At present, much work is being done to expand the range of pollutants to which biodegradation can be applied, and to make treatment techniques less expensive and better applicable for waste streams which are difficult to handle.

Dynamics, Mobility and Transformation of Pollutants and Nutrients

Dynamics, Mobility and Transformation of Pollutants and Nutrients

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080548463

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 358

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623435-28a.gif Volume A deals with the dynamics, mobility and transformation of pollutants and nutrients. Soil is a dynamic system in which soil minerals constantly interact with organic matter and microorganisms. Close association among abiotic and biotic entities governs several chemical and biogeochemical processes and affects bioavailability, speciation, toxicity, transformations and transport of xenobiotics and organics in soil environments. This book elaborates critical research and an integrated view on basic aspects of mineral weathering reactions; formation and surface reactivity of soil minerals with respect to nutrients and environmental pollutants; dynamics and transformation of metals, metalloids, and natural and anthropogenic organics; effects of soil colloids on microorganisms and immobilization and activity of enzymes, and metabolic processes, growth and ecology of microbes. It offers up-to-date information on the impact of such a processes on soil development, agricultural production, environmental protection, and ecosystem integrity.