The History of the Universe

The History of the Universe

Author: David H. Lyth

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319227443

Category: Science

Page: 120

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This book gives an accessible account of the history of the Universe; not only what happened, but why it happened. An author of textbooks on the early Universe and inflation, David Lyth now explains both cosmology and the underlying physics to the general reader. The book includes a detailed account of the almost imperceptible structure in the early Universe, and its probable origin as a quantum fluctuation during an early epoch known as the epoch of inflation. It also explains how that early structure is visible now in the cosmic microwave radiation which is our main source of information about the early Universe, and how it gave rise to galaxies and stars. The main text of the book assumes no knowledge of mathematics or physics so that it is accessible to everybody, while an appendix contains more advanced material. As a result the book will be useful for a wide spectrum of readers, including high-school students, undergraduates, postgraduates and professional physicists working in areas other than cosmology. It will also serve as “additional reading” for university courses in general astronomy, astrophysics or cosmology itself.

Cosmology for Physicists

Cosmology for Physicists

Author: David Lyth

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781498755337

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 568

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Written by an award-winning cosmologist, this brand new textbook provides advanced undergraduate and graduate students with coverage of the very latest developments in the observational science of cosmology. The book is separated into three parts; part I covers particle physics and general relativity, part II explores an account of the known history of the universe, and part III studies inflation. Full treatment of the origin of structure, scalar fields, the cosmic microwave background and the early universe are provided. Problems are included in the book with solutions provided in a separate solutions manual. More advanced extension material is offered in the Appendix, ensuring the book is fully accessible to students with a wide variety of background experience.

Post-Planck Cosmology

Post-Planck Cosmology

Author: Cédric Deffayet

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198728856

Category: Science

Page: 545

View: 243

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This book gathers the lecture notes of the 100th Les Houches Summer School, which was held in July 2013. These lectures represent a comprehensive pedagogical survey of the frontier of theoretical and observational cosmology just after the release of the first cosmological results of the Planck mission. The Cosmic Microwave Background is discussed as a possible window on the still unknown laws of physics at very high energy and as a backlight for studying the late-time Universe. Other lectures highlight connections of fundamental physics with other areas of cosmology and astrophysics, the successes and fundamental puzzles of the inflationary paradigm of cosmic beginning, the themes of dark energy and dark matter, and the theoretical developments and observational probes that will shed light on these cosmic conundrums in the years to come.

Primordial Cosmology

Primordial Cosmology

Author: Patrick Peter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191549250

Category: Science

Page:

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This book provides an extensive survey of all the physics necessary to understand the current developments in the field of fundamental cosmology, as well as an overview of the observational data and methods. It will help students to get into research by providing definitions and main techniques and ideas discussed today. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 summarises the fundamentals in theoretical physics needed in cosmology (general relativity, field theory, particle physics). Part 2 describes the standard model of cosmology and includes cosmological solutions of Einstein equations, the hot big bang model, cosmological perturbation theory, cosmic microwave background anisotropies, lensing and evidence for dark matter, and inflation. Part 3 describes extensions of this model and opens up current research in the field: scalar-tensor theories, supersymmetry, the cosmological constant problem and acceleration of the universe, topology of the universe, grand unification and baryogenesis, topological defects and phase transitions, string inspired cosmology including branes and the latest developments. The book provides details of all derivations and leads the student up to the level of research articles.

Dark Energy and the Formation of the Large Scale Structure of the Universe

Dark Energy and the Formation of the Large Scale Structure of the Universe

Author: Jérôme Gleyzes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319412108

Category: Science

Page: 113

View: 973

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This thesis presents several significant new results that shed light on two major puzzles of modern cosmology: the nature of inflation, the very early phase of the universe that is thought to have given rise to the large-scale structures that we observe today; and that of the current accelerated expansion. In particular, it develops a clean method for characterizing linear cosmological perturbations for general theories where gravity is modified and/or affected by a new component, called dark energy, responsible for the accelerated expansion. It proposes a new extension to what were long thought to be the most general scalar field theories devoid of instabilities, and demonstrates the robustness of the relation between the energy scale of inflation and the predicted amplitude of gravitational waves. Finally, it consolidates a set of consistency relations between correlation functions of the cosmological density field and investigates the phenomenological consequences of their potential violation. Presented in a clear, succinct and rigorous style, each of these original results is both profound and important and will leave a deep mark on the field.

Large Scale Structure Formation

Large Scale Structure Formation

Author: Reza Mansouri

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401141758

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 878

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The modern Persian word for cosmology is "Keyhan-shenakht", which is also the title of a Persian book written more than 800 years ago. The same term can also be found in Old Persian. In spite of this old tradition, modern cosmology is a new~omer within the scientific disciplines in Iran. The cosmology community' is small and not yet well established. Given the spectacular recent advances in observational and theoretical cosmology, the large amount of new observational data which will become available in the near future, and the rapid expansion of the international cosmology community, it was realized that Iran should play a more active role in the exciting human endeavour which cosmology constitutes. This was the main motivation to establish a School on Cosmology in Iran. The plan is to hold a cosmology school every three years somewhere in Iran. The focus of this First School on Cosmology was chosen to be structure formation, a rapidly evolving cornerstone of modern cosmology. The topics of the school were selected in order to give both a broad overview of the current status of cosmological structure formation, and an in-depth dis cussion of the key issues theory of cosmological perturbations and analysis of cosmic microwave anisotropies. The lectures by Blanchard and Sarkar give an overview of homogeneous cosmological models and standard big bang cosmology. In his contribution, Padmanabhan presents a comprehen sive discussion of the growth of cosmological perturbations.

Aspects of Today's Cosmology

Aspects of Today's Cosmology

Author: Antonio Alfonso-Faus

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9789533076263

Category: Science

Page: 410

View: 621

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This book presents some aspects of the cosmological scientific odyssey that started last century. The chapters vary with different particular works, giving a versatile picture. It is the result of the work of many scientists in the field of cosmology, in accordance with their expertise and particular interests. Is a collection of different research papers produced by important scientists in the field of cosmology. A sample of the great deal of efforts made by the scientific community, trying to understand our universe. And it has many challenging subjects, like the possible doomsday to be confirmed by the next decade of experimentation. May be we are now half way in the life of the universe. Many more challenging subjects are not present here: they will be the result of further future work. Among them, we have the possibility of cyclic universes, and the evidence for the existence of a previous universe.

Generation of Cosmological Large-Scale Structure

Generation of Cosmological Large-Scale Structure

Author: David N. Schramm

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400900530

Category: Science

Page: 317

View: 146

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This volwne is the proceedings of the third school in particle astrophysics that Schramm and Galeotti have organized at Erice. The focus of thirs third school was the Generation of Cosmological Large-Scale Structure. It was held in November of 1996. The fIrst school in the series was on "Gauge Theory and the Early Universe" in May 1986, the second was on "Dark Matter in the Universe" in May 1988. All three schools have been successful under the auspices of the NATO Advanced Study Institute. This volume is thus the third in the series of the proceedings of these schools. The choice of the topic for this third school was natural, since the problem of generating a large-scale structure has become the most pressing problem in cosmology today. In particular, it is this generation of structure that is the interface between astronomical observations and particle models for the early universe. To date, all models for generating structures inevitably require new fundamental physics beyond the standard, SU x SU X U , model of high energy physics. The 3 2 I seeds for generating structures usually invoke unifIcation physics, and the matter needed to clump and form them seems to require particle properties that have not been seen in laboratories to date.

Gravitation and Astrophysics

Gravitation and Astrophysics

Author: Liao Liu

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814542784

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 699

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It is the tradition of this series of workshops that theorists and experimentalists sharing common interests discuss a variety of issues relevant to promoting the quest to unify microscopic physics and gravitation. This proceedings volume embodies that tradition. It included current hot topics such as superconducting accelerometers, low-temperature-long-distance telescopes for gravitational waves, gravitational experiment with high-precision torsion pendulums and modern high-technology, physics of neutron stars, the theory of accretion disc, Ashtekhar's theory, physics of wormholes, and black holes and entropy. Contents:Empirical Tests of the Relativistic Gravity: The Past, The Present and The Future (W-T Ni)Exact Stiff Dissipative Cosmologies (M K Mak & T Harko)Precision Gravity Experiments Using Superconducting Accelerometers (H J Paik & M V Moody)Systematic Errors in the Measurement of G with Torsion Balance (Z-K Hu & J Luo)Baksan Laser Interferometer Observations: Gravitational and Geophysical Aspects (V Milyukov)Determining the Hubble Constant with Bidirectional Relativistic Proper Motions (Y-P Qin)Some Rigorous Results of the Cosmic Strings (X-Z Li)Gravitational Lensing as a Probe of Dark Energy (Z H Zhu & L Cao)Entropy of the Semiclassical Schwarzschild Black Hole (J-L Jing)Measurement of Tilt Tides with a Folded Pendulum (S-C Wu, S-H Fan, L Jun & J X Tang)A Relativistic Rotational Transformation and Its Possible Implications in Astrophysics (L Hsu & J-P Hsu)and other papers Readership: Researchers in gravitation and astrophysics.

Introduction To The Theory Of The Early Universe: Cosmological Perturbations And Inflationary Theory

Introduction To The Theory Of The Early Universe: Cosmological Perturbations And Inflationary Theory

Author: Valery A Rubakov

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814390613

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 607

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This book accompanies another book by the same authors, and presents the theory of the evolution of density perturbations and relic gravity waves, theory of cosmological inflation and post-inflationary reheating. Written in a pedagogical style, the main chapters give a detailed account of the established theory, with derivation of formulas. Being self-contained, it is a useful textbook for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students. Essential materials from General Relativity, theory of Gaussian random fields and quantum field theory are collected in the appendices. The more advanced topics are approached similarly in a pedagogical way. These parts may serve as a detailed introduction to current research.

The Cosmic Spacetime

The Cosmic Spacetime

Author: Fulvio Melia

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000198317

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 339

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The growth of cosmology into a precision science represents one of the most remarkable stories of the past century. Much has been written chronicling this development, but rarely has any of it focused on the most critical element of this work–the cosmic spacetime itself. Addressing this lacuna is the principal focus of this book, documenting the growing body of evidence compelling us–not only to use this famous solution to Einstein's equations in order to refine the current paradigm, but–to probe its foundation at a much deeper level. Its excursion from the smallest to largest possible scales insightfully reveals an emerging link between the Universe we behold and the established tenets of our most fundamental physical theories. Key Features: Uncovers the critical link between the Local Flatness Theorem in general relativity and the symmetries informing the spacetime's metric coefficients Develops a physical explanation for some of the most unpalatable coincidences in cosmology Provides a sober assessment of the horizon problems precluding our full understanding of the early Universe Reveals a possible explanation for the origin of rest-mass energy in Einstein's theory In spite of its technical layout, this book does not shy away from introducing the principal players who have made the most enduring contributions to this field. Anyone with a graduate level foundation in physics and astronomy will be able to easily follow its contents.