Blind Watchers of the Sky

Blind Watchers of the Sky

Author: Edward W. Kolb

Publisher:

ISBN: 0192862030

Category: Astronomers

Page: 338

View: 313

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How do we know that the earth travels around the sun, the universe is billions of years old, and stars are trillions of miles away? Rocky Kolb tells the fascinating story of the people and ideas that have brought us such knowledge of our planet and the universe, giving realistic portraits of astronomers like Tycho, Kepler, Galileo, Herschel and Hubble. Beginning in 1572 with Tycho's discovery that the heavens can change and ending with the Big Bang of the 20th Century, this is a hugely entertaining and witty account of the quest to discover the universe.

Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe

Author: Don Nardo

Publisher: Capstone

ISBN: 0756533090

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 112

View: 825

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"Tycho Brahe was an eccentric Danish astronomer in the 1500s. Growing up in the wealthy home of his uncle, he was provided with the freedom to pursue his ambitions in life. While attending college, Tycho viewed a solar eclipse, which scholars had predicted would happen. He was fascinated that science could predict such phenomenal events, and he devoted much of his time to studying the heavens. Using modern instruments and techniques to measure the positions of the stars and the movements of the planets, Brahe revolutionized the way astronomers viewed the night sky."

Gaither's Dictionary of Scientific Quotations

Gaither's Dictionary of Scientific Quotations

Author: Carl C. Gaither

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387495774

Category: Science

Page: 1793

View: 324

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Scientists and other keen observers of the natural world sometimes make or write a statement pertaining to scientific activity that is destined to live on beyond the brief period of time for which it was intended. This book serves as a collection of these statements from great philosophers and thought–influencers of science, past and present. It allows the reader quickly to find relevant quotations or citations. Organized thematically and indexed alphabetically by author, this work makes readily available an unprecedented collection of approximately 18,000 quotations related to a broad range of scientific topics.

Lost Discoveries

Lost Discoveries

Author: Dick Teresi

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781439128602

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 646

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Lost Discoveries, Dick Teresi's innovative history of science, explores the unheralded scientific breakthroughs from peoples of the ancient world -- Babylonians, Egyptians, Indians, Africans, New World and Oceanic tribes, among others -- and the non-European medieval world. They left an enormous heritage in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, cosmology, physics, geology, chemistry, and technology. The mathematical foundation of Western science is a gift from the Indians, Chinese, Arabs, Babylonians, and Maya. The ancient Egyptians developed the concept of the lowest common denominator, and they developed a fraction table that modern scholars estimate required 28,000 calculations to compile. The Babylonians developed the first written math and used a place-value number system. Our numerals, 0 through 9, were invented in ancient India; the Indians also boasted geometry, trigonometry, and a kind of calculus. Planetary astronomy as well may have begun with the ancient Indians, who correctly identified the relative distances of the known planets from the sun, and knew the moon was nearer to the earth than the sun was. The Chinese observed, reported, dated, recorded, and interpreted eclipses between 1400 and 1200 b.c. Most of the names of our stars and constellations are Arabic. Arabs built the first observatories. Five thousand years ago, the Sumerians said the earth was circular. In the sixth century, a Hindu astronomer taught that the daily rotation of the earth on its axis provided the rising and setting of the sun. Chinese and Arab scholars were the first to use fossils scientifically to trace earth's history. Chinese alchemists realized that most physical substances were merely combinations of other substances, which could be mixed in different proportions. Islamic scholars are legendary for translating scientific texts of many languages into Arabic, a tradition that began with alchemical books. In the eleventh century, Avicenna of Persia divined that outward qualities of metals were of little value in classification, and he stressed internal structure, a notion anticipating Mendeleyev's periodic chart of elements. Iron suspension bridges came from Kashmir, printing from India; papermaking was from China, Tibet, India, and Baghdad; movable type was invented by Pi Sheng in about 1041; the Quechuan Indians of Peru were the first to vulcanize rubber; Andean farmers were the first to freeze-dry potatoes. European explorers depended heavily on Indian and Filipino shipbuilders, and collected maps and sea charts from Javanese and Arab merchants. The first comprehensive, authoritative, popularly written, multicultural history of science, Lost Discoveries fills a crucial gap in the history of science.

Shaping World History

Shaping World History

Author: Mary Kilbourne Matossian

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781315503486

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 812

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This innovative survey of world history from earliest times to the present focuses on the role of four factors in the development of humankind: climate, communication and transportation technology, scientific advances, and the competence of political elites. Matossian moves chronologically through fifteen historic periods showing how one or more of the causative factors led to significant breakthroughs in human history. Shaping World History is based on original research and also draws widely from the literature on the history of science, technology, climate, agriculture, and historical epidemiology. This compelling analysis is presented in a personal style and includes reflections on how things work and why they are important.

Measuring the Universe

Measuring the Universe

Author: Kitty Ferguson

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 9781448167227

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 698

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Suppose you and I still wondered whether all of the pinpoints of light in the night sky are the same distance from us. Suppose none of our contemporaries could tell us whether the Sun orbits the Earth, or vice versa, or even how large the Earth is. Suppose no one had guessed there are mathematical laws underlying the motions of the heavens. How would - how did - anyone begin to discover these numbers and these relationships without leaving the Earth? What made anyone even think it was possible to find out “how far,” without going there? In Measuring the Universe we join our ancestors and contemporary scientists as they tease this information out of a sky full of stars. Some of the questions have turned out to be loaded, and a great deal besides mathematics and astronomy has gone into answering them. Politics, religion, philosophy and personal ambition: all have played roles in this drama. There are poignant personal stories, of people like Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Herschel, and Hubble. Today scientists are attempting to determine the distance to objects near the borders of the observable universe, far beyond anything that can be seen with the naked eye in the night sky, and to measure time back to its origin. The numbers are too enormous to comprehend. Nevertheless, generations of curious people have figured them out, one resourceful step at a time. Progress has owed as much to raw ingenuity as to technology, and frontier inventiveness is still not out of date.

The Philosophy of Cosmology

The Philosophy of Cosmology

Author: Khalil Chamcham

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316995952

Category: Science

Page:

View: 291

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Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.

Moving Heaven and Earth (Icon Science)

Moving Heaven and Earth (Icon Science)

Author: John Henry

Publisher: Icon Books

ISBN: 9781785782701

Category: Science

Page: 82

View: 796

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When Nicolaus Copernicus claimed that the Earth was not stationary at the centre of the universe but circled the Sun, he brought about a total revolution in the sciences and consternation in the Church. Copernicus’ theory demanded a new physics to explain motion and force, a new theory of space, and a completely new conception of the nature of our universe. He also showed for the first time that a common-sense view of things isn’t necessarily correct, and that mathematics can and does reveal the true nature of the material world. As John Henry reveals, from his idea of a swiftly moving Earth Copernicus sowed the seed from which science has grown to be a dominant aspect of modern culture, fundamental in shaping our understanding of the workings of the cosmos.

Georges Lemaître: Life, Science and Legacy

Georges Lemaître: Life, Science and Legacy

Author: Rodney D. Holder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642322549

Category: Science

Page: 201

View: 787

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The year 2011 marked the 80th anniversary of Georges Lemaître’s primeval atom model of the universe, forerunner of the modern day Big Bang theory. Prompted by this momentous anniversary the Royal Astronomical Society decided to publish a volume of essays on the life, work and faith of this great cosmologist, who was also a Roman Catholic priest. The papers presented in this book examine in detail the historical, cosmological, philosophical and theological issues surrounding the development of the Big Bang theory from its beginnings in the pioneering work of Lemaître through to the modern day. This book offers the best account in English of Lemaître’s life and work. It will be appreciated by professionals and graduate students interested in the history of cosmology.

Conversations About Astrophysics & Cosmology

Conversations About Astrophysics & Cosmology

Author: Howard Burton

Publisher: Open Agenda Publishing

ISBN: 9781771700986

Category: Science

Page:

View: 702

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Conversations About Astrophysics & Cosmology include the following 5 carefully-edited Ideas Roadshow conversations featuring world-leading physicists with a detailed preface highlighting the connections between the different books: I. Cosmological Conundrums - A conversation with Justin Khoury, Professor of Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. II. Astrophysical Wonders - A conversation with Scott Tremaine, Professor Emeritus of Astrophysics at the Institute for Advanced Study. III. A Universe Of Particles: Cosmological Reflections - A conversation with Rocky Kolb, the Arthur Holly Compton Distinguished Service Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago. IV. Inflated Expectations: A Cosmological Tale - A conversation with Paul Steinhardt, the Albert Einstein Professor of Science and Director of the Center for Theoretical Science at Princeton University. V. The Cyclic Universe - A conversation with Roger Penrose, co-recipient of the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute at the University of Oxford. Ideas Roadshow award-winning conversations present a wealth of candid insights from some of the world's leading experts, generated through a focused yet informal setting. Combining accessibility, substance and spontaneity, they are explicitly designed to give non-specialists a unique window into frontline research and scholarship that wouldn't otherwise be experienced through standard lectures and textbooks.

A Universe of Particles: Cosmological Reflections

A Universe of Particles: Cosmological Reflections

Author: Howard Burton

Publisher: Open Agenda Publishing

ISBN: 9781771701228

Category: Science

Page:

View: 841

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This book is based on an in-depth filmed conversation between Howard Burton and Rocky Kolb, the Arthur Holly Compton Distinguished Service Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago. After an inspiring story of how Rocky Kolb became interested in science, this wide-ranging conversation covers topics such as the development of and his work on inflationary cosmology, the Standard Model of particle physics, dark matter, dark energy, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the Large Hadron Collider, advice for high-school teachers to ignite a passion for learning in students, and more. This carefully-edited book includes an introduction, The Passion Principle, and questions for discussion at the end of each chapter: I. Cool Beginnings - From the local library to Caltech II. Cosmic Inflation - Alan Guth causes a stir III. Dark Matter - Finally recognized ignorance IV. Dark Energy - Particularly hard to swallow V. Motivational Insights - The importance of passion About Ideas Roadshow Conversations Series: This book is part of an expanding series of 100+ Ideas Roadshow conversations, each one presenting a wealth of candid insights from a leading expert through a focused yet informal setting to give non-specialists a uniquely accessible window into frontline research and scholarship that wouldn't otherwise be encountered through standard lectures and textbooks. For other books in this series visit our website (https://ideas-on-film.com/ideasroadshow/).