Basics of Respiratory Mechanics and Artificial Ventilation

Basics of Respiratory Mechanics and Artificial Ventilation

Author: J. Milic-Emili

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9788847022737

Category: Medical

Page: 254

View: 877

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Management of the intensive care patient afflicted by respiratory insufficiency requires knowledge of the pathophysiological basis for altered functions. The etiology and therapy of pulmonary diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly complex. While physiologists and pathophysiologists work prevalently with theoretical modes, clinicians employ sophisticated ventilation support technologies in the attempt to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of the pulmonary diseases which can present with varying grades of severity. Despite the availability of advanced technologies it is common to personalize the treatment protocol according to the patient's physiologic structure.Given the complexity and difficulties of treating respiratory disease, a strong collaboration between clinicians and physiologists is of fundamtental importance.

Respiratory System and Artificial Ventilation

Respiratory System and Artificial Ventilation

Author: Umberto Lucangelo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9788847007659

Category: Medical

Page: 300

View: 406

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Respiratory system and artificial ventilation are key topics when considering the main aspects of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine. This book includes contributions by an international panel of authors. It collects valuable expertise to illustrate principles, and to study results and case experiences on respiratory physiopathology, respiratory mechanics, respiratory functions monitoring, artificial ventilation and diagnostic radiology in respiratory dysfunction failure.

Applied Physiology in Respiratory Mechanics

Applied Physiology in Respiratory Mechanics

Author: J. Milic-Emili

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9788847029286

Category: Medical

Page: 233

View: 684

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The close correlations between anatomo-functional data and clinical aspects are substantiated by the study and interpretation of the data of respiratory mechan ics. This field has developed to such an extent that, today, it is hard to single out one researcher who is an expert of the whole sector, whereas super experts can be found among scholars who, thanks to their studies and continuous comparisons, have contributed to the widening of knowledge and the development of that part of research which correlates some basic disciplines with clinical medicine. This notion is of paramount importance. Indeed, it has to be regarded as a starting point requiring a more precise definition. The analysis of data concern ing ventilation parameters is based on the use of mathematical models that are necessary to simplify the complexity of the various clinical situations. For a cor rect application and interpretation of data, the most recent technological acquisi tions in terms of ventilatory support require to be used as a function of simple mathematical models for the study, control and evolution of the lung diseases that concern the ICU. Thus, the need has arisen to compare the experience acquired in the field of applied physiology and in the clinical sector.

Essentials of Mechanical Ventilation, Third Edition

Essentials of Mechanical Ventilation, Third Edition

Author: Dean Hess

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 9780071772839

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 246

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A practical application-based guide to adult mechanical ventilation This trusted guide is written from the perspective of authors who have more than seventy-five years' experience as clinicians, educators, researchers, and authors. Featuring chapters that are concise, focused, and practical, this book is unique. Unlike other references on the topic, this resource is about mechanical ventilation rather than mechanical ventilators. It is written to provide a solid understanding of the general principles and essential foundational knowledge of mechanical ventilation as required by respiratory therapists and critical care physicians. To make it clinically relevant, Essentials of Mechanical Ventilation includes disease-specific chapters related to mechanical ventilation in these conditions. Essentials of Mechanical Ventilation is divided into four parts: Part One, Principles of Mechanical Ventilation describes basic principles of mechanical ventilation and then continues with issues such as indications for mechanical ventilation, appropriate physiologic goals, and ventilator liberation. Part Two, Ventilator Management, gives practical advice for ventilating patients with a variety of diseases. Part Three, Monitoring During Mechanical Ventilation, discusses blood gases, hemodynamics, mechanics, and waveforms. Part Four, Topics in Mechanical Ventilation, covers issues such as airway management, aerosol delivery, and extracorporeal life support. Essentials of Mechanical Ventilation is a true “must read” for all clinicians caring for mechanically ventilated patients.

Diaphragm Pacing During Mechanical Ventilation

Diaphragm Pacing During Mechanical Ventilation

Author: Ramasamy Meyyappan

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:930766740

Category: Artificial respiration

Page: 129

View: 965

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Prolonged totally controlled mechanical ventilation results in the complete absence of mechanical activity of the diaphragm leading to rapid loses in diaphragmatic function, a syndrome known as Ventilator-Induced Diaphragmatic Dysfunction VIDD. Electrical activation of the diaphragm by phrenic nerve stimulation may prevent diaphragm atrophy in sedated patients undergoing Controlled Mechanical Ventilation CMV. The aims of this thesis were to develop a control algorithm to pace the diaphragm in-synchrony with a ventilator during controlled mechanical ventilation in critically-ill patients and analyze the respiratory mechanics resulting from such co-ordinated inspiratory action of the diaphragm and the mechanical ventilator. The algorithm was verified through bench tests and evaluated in an animal model. In the animal study, the respiratory mechanics were also analyzed to better understand the effects of synchronous diaphragm pacing during mechanical ventilation and to identify an optimal level of pacing support during mechanical ventilation for clinical applications.

Respiratory Monitoring in Mechanical Ventilation

Respiratory Monitoring in Mechanical Ventilation

Author: Jian-Xin Zhou

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811597701

Category: Medical

Page: 308

View: 312

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This book covers the up-to-date advancement of respiratory monitoring in ventilation support as well as detecting the physiological responses to therapeutic interventions to avoid complications. Mechanical ventilation nowadays remains the cornerstone in life saving in critically ill patients with and without respiratory failure. However, conclusive evidences show that mechanical ventilation can also cause lung damage, specifically, in terms of ventilator-induced lung injury. Respiratory monitoring encloses a series of physiological and pathophysiological measurements, from basic gas exchange and ventilator wave forms to more sophisticated diaphragm function and lung volume assessments. The progress of respiratory monitoring has always been accompanied by advances in technology. However, how to properly conduct the procedures and correctly interpret the data requires clear definition. The book introduces respiratory monitoring techniques and data analysis, including gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, thoracic imaging, lung volume measurement, and extra-vascular lung water measurement in the initial part. How to interpret the acquired and derived parameters and to illustrate their clinical applications is presented thoroughly. In the following part, the applications of respiratory monitoring in specific diseases and conditions is introduced, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, obstructive pulmonary diseases, patient-ventilator asynchrony, non-invasive ventilation, brain injury with increased intracranial pressure, ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction, and weaning from mechanical ventilation. This book is intended primarily for ICU physicians and other practitioners including respiratory therapists, ICU nurses and trainees who come into contact with patients under mechanical ventilation. This book also provides guidance for clinical researchers who take part in respiratory and mechanical ventilation researches.

Mechanical Ventilation

Mechanical Ventilation

Author: Antonio M. Esquinas

Publisher:

ISBN: 1536150029

Category: Artificial respiration

Page: 429

View: 832

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Currently, positive pressure mechanical ventilation has gained widespread recognition as an essential strategy in the treatment of various forms of acute and chronic respiratory failure. Its mechanism impacts directly or indirectly on respiratory physiology (gas exchange) and/or respiratory musculature in various medical/surgical pathological conditions. In addition, positive pressure mechanical ventilation has been recognized as a factor that influence both short- and long-term prognosis of critically ill patients. An example of one of the utilities of noninvasive ventilation is to assist in weaning from mechanical ventilation.For these reasons, mechanical ventilation continues to be a matter of controversy and continuous analysis for medical community and growing field of technological advances that optimize patient-ventilator interaction and outcome. This book has made a selection of the hot topics about indications of mechanical ventilation, technological development advances, ethical and cost associated with mechanical ventilation.Initially, the authors believe an essential approach to positive pressure ventilation is based on physiology (gas exchange, lung mechanics, work of breathing, equipment, etc.), modality of mechanical ventilators (invasive and non-invasive ventilation, nasal high flow, etc.), ventilatory modes (conventional and unconventional modes) and possible complications (ventilatory associated pneumonia, diaphragm dysfunction and ventilator-associated events). The most important mechanical ventilation topics and advances made in critically mechanical ventilated patients include obesity, severe hypoxemic respiratory failure (protective ventilation mode, prone position and extracorporeal oxygenation), cardiac surgery, lung/cardiac transplants, thoracic and brain trauma, pregnancy, and sleep breathing disorders. Patient-ventilator asynchrony, sedation and neuromuscular protocols in mechanical ventilation can be complicated by prolonged mechanical ventilation, weaning failure, sepsis and delirium. Continuous advances are being made in technologies such as diagnosis, monitoring and treatment patient-ventilator asynchrony, respiratory muscle function such as electromyography in diaphragm and lung function by ultrasound or electrical impedance.Weaning from mechanical ventilation, hospital discharge and early mobilization are important aspects of how to identify weaning candidates-screening and planning how release from mechanical ventilation (ventilatory options, protocols), reintubation, rehabilitation and goals-directed mobilization and discharge planning from hospitals receiving long-term mechanical ventilation.Finally, ethical and health-related cost perspectives of mechanical ventilation represent the last essential approach towards emergent issues in mechanical ventilation.

Mechanics of Breathing

Mechanics of Breathing

Author: Andrea Aliverti

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9788847056473

Category: Medical

Page: 411

View: 896

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This book offers a state-of-the-art description of the complexity of the healthy and pathological respiratory system, with particular reference to the mechanics of the airways, lung and chest wall. Detailed information is provided on new insights into the mechanics of breathing that have been obtained through technological innovations in measurement systems, cutting-edge modeling techniques and novel approaches to functional imaging of the respiratory system. It is explained how these advances permit the assessment of emerging treatment approaches, including new drugs, innovative surgical techniques and modes of mechanical ventilation and new forms of rehabilitation. In order to ensure comprehensive coverage of the subject, the editor has assembled a multidisciplinary team of authors comprising basic scientists in respiratory medicine, chest and intensive care physicians and bioengineers involved in both modeling and instrumentation. The book is intended for intensive care physicians, respirologists, physiologists, rehabilitation specialists, basic scientists in respiration, research and clinical fellows, biomedical engineers involved with respiratory mechanics and respiratory therapists. They will update their knowledge and improve their clinical expertise.

Basics of Mechanical Ventilation

Basics of Mechanical Ventilation

Author: Hooman Poor

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319899805

Category: Medical

Page: 132

View: 903

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This book is a practical and easily understandable guide for mechanical ventilation. With a focus on the basics, this text begins with a detailed account of the mechanisms of spontaneous breathing as a reference point to then describe how a ventilator actually works and how to effectively use it in practice. The text then details: the various modes of ventilation commonly used in clinical practice; patient-ventilator interactions and dyssynchrony; how to approach a patient on the ventilator with respiratory decompensation; the optimal ventilator management for common disease states like acute respiratory distress syndrome and obstructive lung disease; the process of ventilator weaning; and hemodynamic effects of mechanical ventilation. Written for medical students, residents, and practicing physicians in a variety of different specialties (including internal medicine, critical care, surgery and anesthesiology), this book will instruct readers on how to effectively manage a ventilator, as well as explain the underlying interactions between it and the critically ill patient.

Evidence-Based Management of Patients with Respiratory Failure

Evidence-Based Management of Patients with Respiratory Failure

Author: Andres Esteban

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540273141

Category: Medical

Page: 171

View: 298

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Respiratory failure is a complex disease process whereby the underlying disease and therapeutic measures interact. This book contains an extensive bibliographic review, focusing on preventive and therapeutic studies, that was methodologically standardized, with authors assessing and classifying studies according to statutes of evidence-based medicine. It considers the epidemiology and outcome of mechanical ventilation; addresses ventilator modes and utility of pulmonary mechanics monitoring for treatment; analyzes physiologic effect and patient-outcomes of pulmonary recruitment and lung protective ventilation procedures; describes complications that can be present in these patients such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and useful methods to prevent respiratory infections; covers the impact of bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and antibiotics in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; discusses how, when, and in whom to do tracheostomy; and evaluates the use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade as well as current clinical trials in acute lung injury.