Towards Africa-oriented Risk Analysis Models

Towards Africa-oriented Risk Analysis Models

Author: Korwa Gombe Adar

Publisher: African Books Collective

ISBN: 9780798302135

Category: Social Science

Page: 164

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Risk analysis studies on Africa conducted by a number of international organisations have addressed a number of complex and interlocking socio-economic and political issues, largely painting a bleak picture of the continent. These reports have been used by the Western countries as benchmarks for the flow of donor funds often with disastrous consequences. The failure of the Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) introduced by the Bretton Woods institutions in the 1970s and 1980s serve as a good example. Taking cognisance of these interpretations, the case studies in this volume have employed appropriate methodological, conceptual and theoretical approaches with the objective of reaching balanced assessments on the underlying principles of risk and threat in Africa. The authors take a more holistic view, clearly defining the concept of risk and its corollaries and going beyond the somewhat limited view of those organisations which apply largely Eurocentric values to their assessments.

A Post State-Centric Analysis of China-Africa Relations

A Post State-Centric Analysis of China-Africa Relations

Author: Edson Ziso

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319664538

Category: Political Science

Page: 244

View: 425

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This book offers a new alternative to understanding the relationship between China and Africa. Here, the author not only explores the changing nature of Ethiopia’s internal politics as a result of Chinese investment and commercial links, but also compellingly questions the existing state-centric macro or strategic investigation of China-Africa relations. By thoroughly reviewing and deploying the ‘second image reversed’ approach and the relational concept of state power analytical approaches, Ziso challenges the Western-centric Weberian conceptualization of state. This volume presents an eclectic approach to interpret the state transformation in Ethiopia in light of Chinese capital, arguing for a “state in society” framework which does not treat the state as a unitary black box. This analysis challenges the conventional binary staple which is often framed on whether China is the new imperialist power plundering Africa’s resources or is Africa’s historically all-weather friend. This volume offers an original contribution to knowledge on China’s relations with Ethiopia in particular, and with Africa in general.

South Africa: cross-programmatic efficiency analysis. Policy brief

South Africa: cross-programmatic efficiency analysis. Policy brief

Author:

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9789240020184

Category: Social Science

Page:

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As South Africa looks to progress towards universal health coverage (UHC), including the establishment of the National Health Insurance (NHI), the cross-programmatic efficiency analysis sought to examine and address underlying efficiency issues in the current system and support ongoing reform efforts. It also provided information to policymakers about possible ways to better coordinate and integrate components of the TB, HIV/AIDS, and MNCH health programmes so as to meet population health needs in an efficient manner. This policy brief, which outlines the identified inefficiencies, their implications, and policy options, is written based on that analysis performed in 2016, with recognition that changes in the health system may have taken place since the study was conducted.

Analysis of South Africa's Wildlife Policies and Laws

Analysis of South Africa's Wildlife Policies and Laws

Author: Didi Wamukoya

Publisher: African Wildlife Foundation

ISBN:

Category: Law

Page: 74

View: 682

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South Africa has a long history of regulation of wildlife conservation that dates as far back as 1656 when Jan van Riebeek, a Dutch colonial administrator and founder of Cape Town, gave instructions to regulate hunting in the Cape. From that time, South Africa has had several wildlife and biodiversity conservation policies and laws. After the fall of apartheid, the new framework policies and laws on environment and wildlife conservation were enacted to further strengthen wildlife conservation in the country. South Africa is also a party to various international agreements that commit the country to its conservation efforts at an international level. This rapid, independent assessment of the law and policy governing wildlife crimes in South Africa reviews the Constitution and the national framework laws, focusing on those laws and policies that impose criminal liability for wildlife offences. The assessment then turns to the provinces. Provincial governments have a fairly large degree of legislative and executive jurisdiction over conservations and wildlife management issues, including enforcing compliance of criminal wildlife laws. The review sets out the offences and penalties that exist across the myriad of relevant environmental legislation and policy and looks at the power and mandate of the various enforcement bodies.

Analysis of Changing Rural Women's Reproduction Behavior Patterns in South Africa

Analysis of Changing Rural Women's Reproduction Behavior Patterns in South Africa

Author: Zanele Mfono

Publisher: African Books Collective

ISBN: 9789994455348

Category: Social Science

Page: 121

View: 899

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This report presents a description of the patterns of change in rural women's reproductive behaviour in South Africa over a period of 17 years extending from 1987-9 to 2004. The analyses were informed by the Programme of Action that was set out at the 1994 International Cairo Conference on Population and Development. The Programme of Action has a 20-year implementation time period, and the year 2004 was halfway through the 20 years. The year 2004 is also 30 years since the introduction of South Africa's National Family Planning Programme in 1975, which advanced the health rationale for fertility regulation. It is also twenty years after the introduction of the Population Development Programme in 1985, which emphasized the demographic rationale for fertility regulation. It is finally the seventh year after the introduction of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act in 1997, which legalized pregnancy terminations under prescribed conditions, with emphasis on women's rights to choice. Five of South Africa's nine provinces, which have more than 50 per cent of their populations living in tribal areas, were included in the analyses.

Analysis of Select Wildlife Cases in South Africa

Analysis of Select Wildlife Cases in South Africa

Author: Didi Wamukoya

Publisher: African Wildlife Foundation

ISBN:

Category: Law

Page: 53

View: 828

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The world is in the midst of a poaching and Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) crisis which threatens survival of many species. Poaching and IWT involves a wide range of species including insects, reptiles, amphibians, fish and mammals. IWT has been estimated by different sources to be worth USD 7–23 Billion annually. Targeted species in South Africa include terrestrial mammals such as rhino, endangered plants including cycads and marine species such as abalone. South Africa lost 1,215 rhinos to poaching in 2014 up from 13 rhinos lost in 2007. Demand for wildlife and wildlife products was driven by need for pharmaceuticals, food, pets, ornamental and traditional medicinal purposes. The poaching crisis and IWT are no longer emerging issues. The poaching crisis began in the mid 2000’s when demand for ivory and rhino horn significantly increased. From that time, wildlife crime has become more sophisticated and now involves large‐scale, transnational organised crime. The spike in wildlife crime poses a growing threat not only to wildlife but also to national security, rule of law, sustainable development, and the well‐being of local communities. The scale and nature of the challenges posed by wildlife crime have been recognized in international fora. International organizations such as CITES and INTERPOL have held discussions and made decisions on interventions to reduce or curb this crime. High level political conferences have also addressed the issue. Despite these national and international efforts, corruption, weak legislation, weak judicial systems and light sentences allow criminal networks to continue being involved in IWT because, to them, it is a low risk business with high returns. South Africa has enhanced its law enforcement efforts to combat poaching and IWT. The South African governmentʹs approach to criminal justice is contained in the overarching 1996 National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS). The NCPS motivated a shift in emphasis from crime control to crime prevention which is a shift towards understanding crime as a social issue rather than a solely security issue. It is based on 3 pillars, that is, improving the criminal justice process, reducing crime through environmental design, changing public values and education and reducing transnational crime. The 1998 White Paper on Safety and Security builds on this NCPS framework. It focuses on three key areas, namely law enforcement, crime prevention and institutional reform to meet delivery goals. While both these documents are still applicable to understand South Africa’s approach to criminal justice, the overall strategies seem to have shifted. The South African Police Service adopted a high profile strategy in March 2000 to combat crime in particular hotspots. The White Paper on Local Government 1998 also calls for crime prevention and encourages its integration with other aspects of local development. Partnerships with NGOs and community‐based organizations are called for especially in areas where local government lacks skills, including crime prevention. In 2012 Cabinet approved the Integrated Social Crime Prevention Strategy developed by the National Department of Social Development. Further the White Paper on Community Safety Forums (2012) led to the establishment of community safety forums, which are supposed to be coordinating structures at local government level. The National Development Plan published in 2012 also attaches significant importance to the safety. The key enforcement institution for wildlife crimes in South Africa is the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) through its Environmental Management Inspectorate (EMI). According to the DEA, illegal hunting continued to be the predominant wildlife crime in the 2014/2015 fiscal year. There were 386 arrests for rhino related offences which was an increase from 343 arrests in 2013. The number of environmental crimes finalised increased from 165 to 265 cases in the 2014/2015 reporting period, compared to the 2013/2014 reporting period. The conviction rate also increased from 86% to 94.7%.

The economic value of seasonal forecasts stochastic economywide analysis for East Africa

The economic value of seasonal forecasts stochastic economywide analysis for East Africa

Author: Rodrigues, Joao

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 32

View: 563

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There is growing interest within the climate change and development community in using seasonal forecast information to reduce the losses to agriculture resulting from climate variability, especially within food-insecure countries. However, forecast systems are expensive to establish and maintain, and therefore gauging the potential economic return to investments in forecast systems is crucial. Most studies that evaluate seasonal forecasts focus on developed countries and/or overlook agriculture’s economywide linkages. Yet forecasts may be more valuable in developing regions such as East Africa, where climate is variable and agriculture has macroeconomic importance. We use computable general equilibrium and process-based crop models to estimate the potential economywide value of national seasonal forecast systems in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. Stochastic seasonal simulations produce value distributions for forecasts of varying accuracy and varying levels of farm coverage. A timely and accurate forecast adopted by all farmers generates average regional income gains of US$113 million per year. Gains are much higher during extreme climate events and are generally pro-poor. The forecast value falls when forecast skill and farm coverage decline. National economic and trading structures, including the importance of agricultural exports, are found to be major determinants of forecast value. Economywide approaches are therefore needed to complement farm-level analysis when evaluating forecast systems in low-income agrarian economies.

Economic Analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa Real Estate Policies

Economic Analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa Real Estate Policies

Author: F. N. Hammond

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230274990

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 260

View: 686

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Investments are widely accepted as the matchless path to development. Real estate is as much a prerequisite for investment as are capital and labour. Nonetheless, relative progress in ensuring that arrangements concerning real estate are compatible with desired magnitudes of investments in Africa remains far from satisfactory. Treatment of real estate in the development literature remains tangential and incoherent. This volume explores why real estate policies in Africa have not worked well and examines how they can or should be more organised for efficient and successful outcomes. This book is essential reading for all interested in development economics, real estate economics and African studies.