A Critique of Proportionality and Balancing

A Critique of Proportionality and Balancing

Author: Francisco Javier Urbina Molfino

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107175068

Category: Law

Page: 289

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This book offers a comprehensive critique of the principle of proportionality and balancing as applied to human and constitutional rights.

Proportionality, Balancing, and Rights

Proportionality, Balancing, and Rights

Author: Jan-R. Sieckmann

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030773212

Category: Civil rights

Page: 255

View: 132

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The book focuses on Robert Alexy's theory of constitutional rights. Alexy systematically presented the theory in his seminal book Theorie der Grundrechte (1985; Engl. translation Theory of Constitutional Rights, 2002) and continued to develop it in numerous subsequent articles. Arguably still the most influential theory of constitutional rights, it has found widespread academic support, as well as recognition in several constitutional jurisdictions. On the other hand, it has also been the object of considerable criticism. The aim of this book is to outline the central aspects of Alexy's theory as he sees them, and to further develop the principles of constitutional, fundamental, and human rights by applying a constructive criticism of his theory.

Constitutional Rights and Constitutional Design

Constitutional Rights and Constitutional Design

Author: Paul Yowell

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781509913619

Category: Law

Page: 192

View: 547

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The decisions courts make in constitutional rights cases pervade our political life and touch on our most basic interests and values. The spread of judicial review of legislation around the world means that courts are increasingly called on to settle matters of moral and political controversy, including assisted suicide, data privacy, anti-terrorism measures, marriage, and abortion. But doubts regarding the institutional capacities of courts for deciding such questions are growing. Judges now regularly review social science research to assess whether a law will effectively achieve its aim, and at what cost to other interests. They cite studies and statistical information from psychology, sociology, medicine, and other disciplines in which they are rarely trained. This empirical reasoning proceeds alongside open-ended moral reasoning, with judges employing terms such as equality, liberty, and autonomy, then determining what these require in concrete circumstances. This book shows that courts were not designed for this kind of moral and empirical reasoning. It argues that in comparison to legislatures, the institutional capacities of courts are deficient. Legislatures are better equipped than courts for deliberating and decision-making in regard to the kinds of factual and moral issues that arise in constitutional rights cases. The book concludes by considering the implications of comparative institutional capacity for constitutional design. Is a system of judicial review of legislation something that constitutional framers should choose to adopt? If so, in what form? For countries with systems of judicial review, practical proposals are made to remedy deficiencies in the institutional capacities of courts.

Proportionality in Action

Proportionality in Action

Author: Mordechai Kremnitzer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108497589

Category: Law

Page: 689

View: 127

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A comparative and empirical analysis of proportionality in the case law of six constitutional and supreme courts.

When Environmental Protection and Human Rights Collide

When Environmental Protection and Human Rights Collide

Author: Marie-Catherine Petersmann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781009027984

Category: Law

Page: 317

View: 436

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Conflicts between environmental protection laws and human rights present delicate trade-offs when concerns for social and ecological justice are increasingly intertwined. This book retraces how the legal ordering of environmental protection evolved over time and progressively merged with human rights concerns, thereby leading to a synergistic framing of their relation. It explores the world-making effects this framing performed by establishing how 'human' ought to relate to 'nature', and examines the role played by legislators, experts and adjudicators in (re)producing it. While it questions, contextualises and problematises how and why this dominant framing was construed, it also reveals how the conflicts that underpin this relationship - and the victims they affect - mainly remained unseen. The analysis critically evaluates the argumentative tropes and adjudicative strategies used in the environmental case-law of regional courts to understand how these conflicts are judicially mediated, thereby opening space for new modes of politics, legal imagination and representation.

Proportionality

Proportionality

Author: Vicki C. Jackson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107165564

Category: Law

Page: 353

View: 211

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This book presents important new scholarship by leading figures in constitutional law on new challenges for proportionality doctrine.

Global Mandatory Fair Use

Global Mandatory Fair Use

Author: Tanya Aplin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108875592

Category: Law

Page:

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In a path-breaking work, Tanya Aplin and Lionel Bently make the case that the quotation exception in Article 10 of the Berne Convention constitutes a global, mandatory, fair use provision. It is global, they argue, because of the reach of Berne qua Berne and qua TRIPS, and its mandatory nature is apparent from the clear language of Article 10 and its travaux. It relates to 'use' that is not limited by type of work, type of act, or purpose and it is 'fair' use because the work must be made available to the public, with attribution, and the use must be proportionate and consistent with fair practice. By explaining the contours of global, mandatory fair use - and thus displacing the 'three-step test' as the dominant, international copyright norm governing copyright exceptions - this book creates new insights into how national exceptions should be framed and interpreted.

Constitutionalism Justified

Constitutionalism Justified

Author: Ester Herlin-Karnell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190889074

Category: Law

Page: 352

View: 583

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Constitutionalism Justified analyzes leading Frankfurt School theorist Rainer Forst's theory of a basic right to justification, unique in combining insights from philosophy, constitutionalism, and legal theory. Drawing upon Kant's critical philosophy and Habermas's discourse theory, he has developed fresh perspectives on core topics like the concept of justice, the relation between modernity and emancipation, and human rights. The contributors to this volume explore Forst's work from three different perspectives: philosophy, legal philosophy, and constitutional theory. The first part of this volume addresses the philosophical argument of the basic right to justification, including the influence of Kantian thought on this right, the deontological versus teleological fundamentals, the tension between moral pluralism and universalism, and the relation of the right to justification with social and distributive justice. The second part covers how the right to justification is embedded in constitutional and legal frameworks. It explores the implications that Forst's right to justification has for conceptualizing constitutional democracy and its foundations, and how the moral right to justification may translate into particular practices of justification that are constrained by a legal framework. This includes discussion of the value of constitutionalism in general, of the relation between the formal structure of democracy and substantive justice, of the inclusion of outsiders to the constitutional setting, and of proportionality analysis and judicial review as forms of justification. The book concludes with Rainer Forst's reply to his interlocutors, making the book a valuable source for future research.

Proportionality, Reasonableness and Standards of Review in International Investment Law and Arbitration

Proportionality, Reasonableness and Standards of Review in International Investment Law and Arbitration

Author: Valentina Vadi

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781785368585

Category: LAW

Page: 352

View: 910

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International investment law is one of the most dynamic fields of international law, and yet it has been criticised for failing to strike a fair balance between private and public interests. In this valuable contribution to the current debate, Valentina Vadi examines the merits and pitfalls of arbitral tribunals’ use of the concepts of proportionality and reasonableness to review the compatibility of a state’s regulatory actions with its obligations under international investment law.

General Principles of EU Law and the EU Digital Order

General Principles of EU Law and the EU Digital Order

Author: Ulf Bernitz

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9789403512259

Category: Law

Page: 504

View: 312

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Digitalization of societies has important ramifications for citizens and businesses. The digital landscape is rapidly changing, whereas at the same time there are growing concerns about how market access in the EU’s digital market as well as fundamental rights can be sufficiently safeguarded in the shadow of ‘big data’ and algorithms. This timely and important book presents expert analyses of how digitalization raises questions of the future role for general principles of European Union (EU) law, including the foundational principles of the EU’s fundamental economic freedoms and EU competition rules. Examining a number of issues revolving around the internal market, the digital single market, competition law, intellectual property, data protection, democracy and the rule of law, the contributors provide deeply informed insights of the challenges as to: effects of the technological disruption on the doctrine of general principles; the resilience of general principles in the digital society; the need to rely on new general principles in the digital society; the realization of the digital single market; the safeguarding of fundamental rights and the rule of law. The contributors are highly esteemed scholars from major European universities. A common theme is the need for judicial evolution of EU fundamental rights law in the digital era, alongside penetrating analyses of recent Court of Justice of the European Union case law on the impact of digitalization. Dealing as it does with an area of European law of particular complexity and rapidly growing importance, the anthology provides insights and knowledge about the ways in which digitalization is rapidly changing EU law. Are general principles of EU law as developed in an ‘analogue world’ sufficiently resilient to withstand the rapid and often disruptive developments taking place in the digital marketplace? The fresh look at the concept of ‘general principles’ taken by the various contributors helps to clarify the actual application in EU law in areas related to the ongoing digitalization of our society. It will be greatly appreciated by practitioners, policymakers and academics active in any of the many fields of law affected by the digital revolution.

Renmin Chinese Law Review

Renmin Chinese Law Review

Author: Jichun Shi

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781789902082

Category: Law

Page:

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p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 10.0px Arial} Renmin Chinese Law Review, Volume 7 is the fourth work in a series of annual volumes on contemporary Chinese law which bring together the work of recognized scholars from China, offering a window on current legal research in China.

Eternity Clauses in Democratic Constitutionalism

Eternity Clauses in Democratic Constitutionalism

Author: Silvia Suteu

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192602602

Category: Law

Page: 272

View: 864

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This book analyses unamendability in democratic constitutionalism and engages critically and systematically with its perils, offering a much-needed corrective to existing understandings of this phenomenon. Whether formalized in the constitutional text or developed as part of judicial doctrines of implicit unamendability, eternity clauses raise fundamental questions about the core democratic commitments underpinning any given constitution. The book takes seriously the democratic challenge eternity clauses pose and argues that this goes beyond the old tension between constitutionalism and democracy. Instead, eternity clauses reveal themselves to be a far more ambivalent constitutional mechanism, one with greater and more insidious potential for abuse than has been recognized. The 'dark side' of unamendability includes its propensity to insulate majoritarian, exclusionary, and internally incoherent values, as well as its sometimes purely pragmatic role in elite bargaining. The book adopts a contextual approach and brings to the fore a variety of case studies from non-traditional jurisdictions. These insights from the periphery illuminate the prospects of unamendability fulfilling its intended aims - protecting constitutional democracy foremost among them. With its promise most appealing in transitional, post-conflict, and fragile democracies, unamendability reveals itself, counterintuitively, to be both less potent and potentially more dangerous in precisely these contexts. The book also places the rise of eternity clauses in the context of other significant trends in recent constitutional practice: the transnational embeddedness of constitution-making and of constitutional adjudication; the rise of popular participation in constitutional reform processes; and the ongoing crisis of democratic backsliding in liberal democracies.